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Open AccessArticle

Single-Pot Synthesis of Biodiesel using Efficient Sulfonated-Derived Tea Waste-Heterogeneous Catalyst

1
Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Chemical Engineering Department, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi 127788, United Arab Emirates
3
School of Chemistry and Environment, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam 40450, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Center of Nanomaterials Research, Institute of Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam 40450, Selangor, Malaysia
5
National Centre of Excellence in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan
6
Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
7
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(14), 2293; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12142293
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 3 July 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterogeneous Catalysts for Energy and Environmental Applications)
The main purpose of this manuscript is to report the new usage of tea waste (TW) as a catalyst for efficient conversion of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) to biodiesel. In this work, we investigate the potential of tea waste char as a catalyst for biodiesel production before and after sulfonation. The activated sulfonated tea waste char catalyst was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), elemental composition (CHNS), nitrogen adsorption-desorption using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and ammonia-temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD). The activated tea waste char catalyst shows higher acid density of 31 μmol g−1 as compared to tea waste char of 16 μmol g−1 and higher surface area of 122 m2/g. The optimum fatty acid conversion conditions were found that 4 wt % of catalyst loading with 9:1 of methanol:PFAD for 90 min of reaction time at 65 °C gives 97% free fatty acid (FFA) conversion. In conclusion, the sulfonated tea waste (STW) catalyst showed an impressive catalytic activity towards the esterification of PFAD at optimum reaction conditions with significant recyclability in five successive cycles without any reactivation step. View Full-Text
Keywords: waste tea-based catalyst; sulfonation; characterization; PFAD-biodiesel waste tea-based catalyst; sulfonation; characterization; PFAD-biodiesel
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rashid, U.; Ahmad, J.; Ibrahim, M.L.; Nisar, J.; Hanif, M.A.; Shean, T.Y.C. Single-Pot Synthesis of Biodiesel using Efficient Sulfonated-Derived Tea Waste-Heterogeneous Catalyst. Materials 2019, 12, 2293.

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