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Open AccessArticle

Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Mixed with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid for the Photodynamic Antimicrobial Strategy in Hard Tissue Regeneration

by Yu-Fang Shen 1,2,†, Tsui-Hsien Huang 3,4, Hooi-Yee Ng 5,6, Hsin-Yuan Fang 6,7,† and Tuan-Ti Hsu 6,*
1
Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, Taichung City 40447, Taiwan
2
3D Printing Medical Research Institute, Asia University, Taichung City 40447, Taiwan
3
School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City 40447, Taiwan
4
Department of Stomatology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City 40447, Taiwan
5
School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung City 40447, Taiwan
6
3D Printing Medical Research Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City 40447, Taiwan
7
Department of Thoracic Surgery, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City 40447, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1734; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091734
Received: 4 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics: Bioinert, Bioactive, and Coatings)
Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based photodynamic antimicrobial strategy can provide good antimicrobial effects and be used for medical applications. The aim of this study was to apply this strategy to Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), which is commonly used as a filling material for root endings and by doing so, to increase the bactericidal capability of MTA, as well as to investigate its characterization, cytocompatibility, and odontogenic differentiation potential. MTA is known to be a derivative of calcium silicate (CS). In this study, MTA specimens with or without ALA and light treatment were prepared. Diametral tensile strength values (DTS), setting durations, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, apatite-mineralization, and antimicrobial abilities of the MTA, were also analyzed. Human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) can proliferate into the newly formed matrix and differentiate into odontoblasts to reinforce and strengthen the root. Levels of hDPCs proliferation and its odontogenic capabilities when cultured on MTA with ALA and light treatment, and the percentages of cells existing in the various cell cycle stages, were further evaluated in this study. The results indicated that MTA added ALA with light treatment had greater antibacterial ability and cytocompatibility, compared to MTA alone. A higher percentage S phase of the cells cultured on MTA added ALA with light treatment was observed. Furthermore, hDPCs cultured on MTA added ALA with light treatment had the highest expression levels of the odontoblastic differentiation markers. ALA has great antimicrobial efficiency and is a potential material for future medical applications. ALA-based photodynamic antibacterial strategy applied in the MTA has great antibacterial ability, cytocompatibility, and odontoblastic differentiation potential, and can facilitate the development of root canal treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: mineral trioxide aggregate; aminolevulinic acid; photodynamic therapy; dental pulp cell; odontogenesis mineral trioxide aggregate; aminolevulinic acid; photodynamic therapy; dental pulp cell; odontogenesis
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Shen, Y.-F.; Huang, T.-H.; Ng, H.-Y.; Fang, H.-Y.; Hsu, T.-T. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Mixed with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid for the Photodynamic Antimicrobial Strategy in Hard Tissue Regeneration. Materials 2018, 11, 1734.

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