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Open AccessArticle

Advancing Dielectric and Ferroelectric Properties of Piezoelectric Polymers by Combining Graphene and Ferroelectric Ceramic Additives for Energy Storage Applications

1
Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590, Pakistan
2
School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
3
The ARC Research Hub for Graphene Enabled Industry Transformation, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
4
Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1553; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091553
Received: 21 July 2018 / Revised: 19 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
To address the limitations of piezoelectric polymers which have a low dielectric constant andto improve their dielectric and ferroelectric efficiency for energy storage applications, we designed and characterized a new hybrid composite that contains polyvinylidene fluoride as a dielectric polymer matrix combined with graphene platelets as a conductive and barium titanite as ceramic ferroelectric fillers. Different graphene/barium titanate/polyvinylidene fluoride nanocomposite films were synthesized by changing the concentration of graphene and barium titanate to explore the impact of each component and their potential synergetic effect on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the composite. Results showed that with an increase in the barium titanate fraction, dielectric efficiency ofthe nanocomposite was improved. Among all synthesized nanocomposite films, graphene/barium titanate/polyvinylidene fluoride nanocomposite in the weight ratio of 0.15:0.5:1 exhibited thehighest dielectric constant of 199 at 40 Hz, i.e., 15 fold greater than that of neat polyvinylidene fluoride film at the same frequency, and possessed a low loss tangent of 0.6. However, AC conductivity and ferroelectric properties of graphene/barium titanate/polyvinylidene fluoride nanocomposite films were enhanced with an increase in the graphene weight fraction. Graphene/barium titanate/polyvinylidene fluoride nanocomposite films with a weight ratio of 0.2:0.1:1 possessed a high AC conductivity of 1.2 × 10−4 S/m at 40 Hz. While remanent polarization, coercive field, and loop area of the same sample were 0.9 μC/cm2, 9.78 kV/cm, and 24.5 μC/cm2·V, respectively. Our results showed that a combination of graphene and ferroelectric ceramic additives are an excellent approach to significantly advance the performance of dielectric and ferroelectric properties of piezoelectric polymers for broad applications including energy storage. View Full-Text
Keywords: dielectric; ferroelectric; graphene; barium titanate; polyvinylidene fluoride; capacitors dielectric; ferroelectric; graphene; barium titanate; polyvinylidene fluoride; capacitors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ishaq, S.; Kanwal, F.; Atiq, S.; Moussa, M.; Azhar, U.; Imran, M.; Losic, D. Advancing Dielectric and Ferroelectric Properties of Piezoelectric Polymers by Combining Graphene and Ferroelectric Ceramic Additives for Energy Storage Applications. Materials 2018, 11, 1553.

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