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Open AccessArticle

Delphi Prospection on Additive Manufacturing in 2030: Implications for Education and Employment in Spain

Manufacturing and Construction Engineering Department, ETS de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Calle Juan del Rosal, 12, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry and Industrial Design Department, ETS de Ingeniería y Diseño Industrial, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Ronda de Valencia, 3, 28012 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1500;
Received: 7 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
The term additive manufacturing (AM) groups together a set of technologies with similar characteristics forming part of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. AM is being developed globally, as evidenced by the standards published by and the agreements between the ISO and the ASTM in 2013. The purpose of this paper is to anticipate the main changes that will occur in AM by 2030 as forecast by more than 100 Spanish experts through Delphi prospection performed in 2018. In this way, the areas, aspects, and business models with the greatest probabilities of occurrence are obtained. The need for technical experts with specific knowledge and skills requires changes to current training syllabuses. Such changes will enable students to have the profiles foreseen in these job trends. The encouragement of STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics) training through the introduction of AM in study plans may be an appropriate alternative. Finally, the consequences of the Fourth Industrial Revolution for the employment market and on jobs, particularly in Spain, are set out and the latest Spanish Research, Development, and Innovation (R&D + I) plans are summarized as the framework for the possible implementation and development of AM. View Full-Text
Keywords: additive manufacturing; delphi prospection; 3D printing; education; employment additive manufacturing; delphi prospection; 3D printing; education; employment
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Pérez-Pérez, M.P.; Gómez, E.; Sebastián, M.A. Delphi Prospection on Additive Manufacturing in 2030: Implications for Education and Employment in Spain. Materials 2018, 11, 1500.

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