To reduce the residual stress and improve the fatigue property of the laser weldment by using the stress self-accommodation characteristic of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloys (SMAs), a Fe15Mn5Si12Cr6Ni memory alloy welding seam was formed inside 304 stainless steel by laser welding with filler powder. The combination of the hole-drilling method and the ANSYS software was used to research the distribution law of residual stress inside the laser welding specimen. The fatigue strength of the laser welded specimens with the Fe-Mn-Si SMAs welding seam (experimental materials) and 304 stainless steel welding seam (comparative materials) was measured by cycle bending fatigue test. The microhardness of the welding specimens was measured by the microhardness tester. The thermodynamic model of the laser welding process and the phase transition crystallography of Fe-Mn-Si SMAs were evaluated to analyze the strengthening mechanism of the mechanical properties in the experimental materials. The results show that the distribution law for residual stress in the experiment and simulation are consistent. The experimental materials possess low residual stress, high fatigue strength and high microhardness. The strengthening mechanism for mechanical properties is the welding residual stress-induced γ→ε martensitic transformation inside the experimental materials, which causes the tensile plastic strain of the welding seam to resist residual compression strain, and the residual stress, as the transition driving force, is released in shear processing.
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