Gallium (Ga) and some of its alloys have a range of properties that make them an attractive option for microelectronic interconnects, including low melting point, non-toxicity, and the ability to wet without fluxing most materials—including oxides—found in microelectronics. Some of these properties result from their ability to form stable high melting temperature solid solutions and intermetallic compounds with other metals, such as copper, nickel, and aluminium. Ga and Ga-based alloys have already received significant attention in the scientific literature given their potential for use in the liquid state. Their potential for enabling the miniaturisation and deformability of microelectronic devices has also been demonstrated. The low process temperatures, made possible by their low melting points, produce significant energy savings. However, there are still some issues that need to be addressed before their potential can be fully realised. Characterising Ga and Ga-based alloys, and their reactions with materials commonly used in the microelectronic industry, are thus a priority for the electronics industry. This review provides a summary of research related to the applications and characterisation of Ga-based alloys. If the potential of Ga-based alloys for low temperature bonding in microelectronics manufacturing is to be realised, more work needs to be done on their interactions with the wide range of substrate materials now being used in electronic circuitry.
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