Vancomycin is the treatment of choice for infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
(MRSA). Clinically, combinations of vancomycin (VAN) and beta-lactams have been shown to improve patient outcomes compared to VAN alone for the treatment of MRSA bloodstream infections. However, VAN is known to cause nephrotoxicity, which could be ameliorated using biocompatible lipid drug delivery systems or liposomes. Previous attempts have been made for encapsulation of VAN in liposomes; however, drug loading has been poor, mainly because of the high aqueous solubility of VAN. In this study, we report a robust method to achieve high loading of VAN and cefazolin (CFZ) in unilamellar liposomes. Liposomes of sizes between 170–198 nm were prepared by modified reverse phase evaporation method and achieved high loading of 40% and 26% (weight/weight) for VAN and CFZ, respectively. Liposomal VAN reduced minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values 2-fold in comparison to commercial VAN. The combination of liposomal VAN (LVAN) and liposomal CFZ (LCFZ) demonstrated a 7.9-fold reduction compared to LVAN alone. Rhodamine dye-loaded liposomes demonstrated superior cellular uptake in macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells. Fluorescent images of LVAN-encapsulating near-infrared (NIR) dye, S0456 (LVAN-S0456) clearly indicated that LVAN-S0456 had reduced renal excretion with very low fluorescent intensity in the kidneys. It is anticipated that the long circulation and reduced kidney clearance of LVAN-S0456 compared to VAN-S0456 injected in mice can lead to enhanced efficacy against MRSA infections with reduced nephrotoxicity. Overall, our developed formulations of VAN when administered alone or in combination with CFZ, provide a rational approach for combating MRSA infections.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited