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Open AccessArticle

Influence of Acid, Ethanol, and Anthocyanin Pigment on the Optical and Mechanical Properties of a Nanohybrid Dental Composite Resin

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College of Medicine, Korea University (KU), Seoul 02841, Korea
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Department of Dental Materials Science, Seoul National University School of Dentistry (SNUSD), Seoul 03080, Korea
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Department of Periodontology, Seoul National University School of Dentistry (SNUSD), Seoul 03080, Korea
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Department of Applied Statistics, Dankook University (DU), Yongin 16890, Korea
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Biological Science, Rice University (RU), Houston, TX 77005, USA
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Department of Conservative Dentistry, Kyung Hee University Dental Hospital (KHUDH), Seoul 02447, Korea
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Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 03080, Korea
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071234
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
This study investigated the influences of acidity, ethanol, and pigment on the optical properties, microhardness, and surface roughness (Ra) of a nanohybrid dental composite resin. A total of 108 disc-shaped specimens were fabricated using a nanohybrid dental composite and allocated into 36 different storage solutions according to the levels of pH (2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.5), ethanol (0%, 20%, and 40%), and anthocyanin pigment (0%, 2.5%, and 12.5%). Measurements of the colorimetric parameter and the amount of color change (ΔE), translucency parameter (TP), microhardness, and surface roughness (Ra) were performed at 24 h (baseline), 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-weeks. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a Tukey honestly significant difference test and Pearson correlation analysis were carried out (α = 0.05). Pigment of 12.5% or 40% ethanol significantly increased the ΔE (P < 0.001, P = 0.048, respectively). Pigment of 2.5% or 12.5% significantly decreased the TP (P = 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). Microhardness of composite resin stored in pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 solution was lower than that for pH 5.5 (P < 0.001). Pigment, ethanol, and pH did not influence the Ra. TP change and ΔE, and Ra and ΔE had a significant positive correlation (P < 0.05). In conclusion, pigment and ethanol levels influenced the optical properties and acidity affected the microhardness of composite resin. View Full-Text
Keywords: color; composite resin; acidity; anthocyanin; ethanol color; composite resin; acidity; anthocyanin; ethanol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hwang, S.; Chung, S.H.; Lee, J.-T.; Kim, Y.-T.; Kim, Y.J.; Oh, S.; Yeo, I.-S.L. Influence of Acid, Ethanol, and Anthocyanin Pigment on the Optical and Mechanical Properties of a Nanohybrid Dental Composite Resin. Materials 2018, 11, 1234.

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