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Open AccessArticle

Pollen-Structured Gold Nanoclusters for X-ray Induced Photodynamic Therapy

1
Regenerative Medicine Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute (AMDI), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kepala Batas 13200, Malaysia
2
Institute of New Drug Development, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
3
Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
4
Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Nanomedicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan 35053, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1170; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071170
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICASI 2018)
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment that employs the production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), subsequently triggering tumor apoptosis and tumor size reduction. However, this approach suffers from insufficient light penetration depth. In order to mitigate this issue, pollen-structured gold clusters (PSGCs) were designed for mediating X-ray-induced PDT for radiotherapy enhancement. The structure of PSGCs provides a large surface area that is able to generate ROS upon X-ray irradiation. The synthesized PSGCs were exposed to different X-ray doses and the generated ROS was then quantified by dihydroethidium (DHE) assay. Furthermore, at the cellular level, the PDT efficacy of PSGCs was evaluated via immunofluorescence staining with γ-H2AX and comet assay. The results demonstrated that PSGCs possess a significantly high ROS-generating capacity and a remarkable PDT efficacy in the treatment of breast cancer cells, thus showing potential clinical uses in deep-tissue cancer treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: photodynamic therapy; pollen-structured gold clusters; reactive oxygen species; mesoporous silica photodynamic therapy; pollen-structured gold clusters; reactive oxygen species; mesoporous silica
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tew, L.S.; Cai, M.-T.; Lo, L.-W.; Khung, Y.L.; Chen, N.-T. Pollen-Structured Gold Nanoclusters for X-ray Induced Photodynamic Therapy. Materials 2018, 11, 1170.

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