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Open AccessArticle

Titanium Oxide (TiO2)/Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) Denture Base Nanocomposites: Mechanical, Viscoelastic and Antibacterial Behavior

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Restorative Dental Sciences Department, Dentistry College, King Saud University, Riyadh 11545, Saudi Arabia
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Applied Medical Science Department, Community College, King Saud University, Riyadh 11001, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Helwan 11792, Egypt
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Dental Health Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11545, Saudi Arabia
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Molecular and Cell Biology (MCB) Laboratory, Prince Naif Health Research Center, College of Dentistry, Riyadh 11437, Saudi Arabia
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Microbiology Research Laboratory, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh 11437, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1096; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071096
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 19 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 27 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Nanomaterials and Their Applications)
Currently, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is the most popular denture base material. Most fractures of dentures that occur during function are due to its insufficient mechanical strength. The major drawbacks of PMMA are insufficient ductility, strength, and viscoelastic behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a polymethylmethacrylate denture base material modified with TiO2 nanoparticles in terms of nanomechanical, creep-recovery, and relaxation. Additionally, the effects of addition TiO2 nanoparticles on the thermal and antimicrobial adhesion behaviors were investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the effect of small amounts of TiO2 nanoparticles (1 wt. %, 2 wt. %, and 3 wt. %) on the degradation behavior of PMMA denture bases was insignificant. The nanomechanical test results of the PMMA and PMMA/TiO2 nanocomposites indicated that the hardness and modulus in the nanoscale range improved due to TiO2 addition. At a 1200-nm penetration depth, the modulus increased by 10%, 16%, and 29% and hardness increased by 18%, 24%, and 35% with the addition of 1 wt. %, 2 wt. %, and 3 wt. % TiO2, respectively. Furthermore, the creep-recovery and relaxation behaviors of PMMA were significantly improved due to the addition of TiO2. The creep strain decreased from 1.41% to 1.06%, 0.66%, and 0.49% with the addition of 1 wt. %, 2 wt. %, and 3 wt. % TiO2, respectively. The relaxation test results showed that the initial stress under 1% strain improved to 19.9, 21.2, and 22 MPa with the addition of 1 wt. %, 2 wt. %, and 3 wt. % TiO2, respectively. The improvement in the nanohardness, modulus, creep recovery, and relaxation behavior of PMMA due to the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles indicated the role of the nanoparticles in increasing the PMMA matrix stiffness by reducing its mobility and free volume. TiO2 nanoparticles also improved the antimicrobial behavior of PMMA by significantly reducing bacterial adherence with increasing TiO2 ratio. View Full-Text
Keywords: polymethylmethacrylate; TiO2; TGA; creep; nanomechanical; DSC; antibacterial polymethylmethacrylate; TiO2; TGA; creep; nanomechanical; DSC; antibacterial
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alrahlah, A.; Fouad, H.; Hashem, M.; Niazy, A.A.; AlBadah, A. Titanium Oxide (TiO2)/Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) Denture Base Nanocomposites: Mechanical, Viscoelastic and Antibacterial Behavior. Materials 2018, 11, 1096.

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