# Residual Fatigue Properties of Asphalt Pavement after Long-Term Field Service

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{4}

^{5}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Research Methodologies

#### 2.1. Materials

#### 2.2. Research Methodologies

#### 2.2.1. Research Program

#### 2.2.2. Indirect Tensile Fatigue Test

_{f}and σ

_{0}in the classical fatigue analysis [28].

_{f}is the number of cycles to failure, σ

_{0}is the applied loading level, and K and n are the coefficients related to the material properties.

#### 2.2.3. Indirect Tensile Resilient Modulus

## 3. Results and Discussions

#### 3.1. Fatigue Properties in One Expressway

#### 3.1.1. Cracking

#### 3.1.2. Raveling and Potholes

#### 3.2. Fatigue Properties in Different Expressway

#### 3.2.1. Cracking Area

#### 3.2.2. Raveling Area

#### 3.2.3. Fatigue Characteristics

^{2}represents the coefficient of determination for the fatigue curve. The minimum R

^{2}value is 0.71, which was found for H-TC-u specimen. Such high R

^{2}values indicate that the analytical methods for fatigue behavior used in this study are largely repeatable. Furthermore, the average R

^{2}value for HD expressway, which is 0.902, is higher than for the SH expressway, with a value of 0.882. SH expressway is subject to much more daily traffic than that of HD expressway, with two times as many heavy trucks using the HD expressway. Such heavy traffic loading would definitely introduce non-uniform effect on the pavement structure, hence resulting in lower repeatability for the fatigue test.

## 4. Conclusions

- (1)
- Residual fatigue results show that there is no clear correlation between fatigue properties and pavement failure modes, since potholes and raveling are not simply due to repeated traffic loading. Potholes and raveling are the result of moisture damage phenomenon, along with bitumen quality and adhesion between bitumen and aggregate. Furthermore, the mechanisms for longitudinal cracking and transverse cracking are quite different to what causes alligator cracking, since more than fatigue loading is involved.
- (2)
- The minimum R
^{2}value for fatigue trend lines is 0.71, illustrating that the fatigue analysis with field specimens in this research has acceptable repeatability. Most specimens from surface layer perform with higher n values than the specimens from corresponding underneath layer. Surface layers have a higher fatigue life under small stress levels, but shorter fatigue life under large stress levels, indicating that the materials have been severely aged and the elastic behavior of asphalt mixture has been reduced. - (3)
- ITS values of surface layer samples are all higher than that of corresponding samples of their underneath layer. Specimens from transverse and longitudinal cracking areas, and their associated surface and underneath layers, have similar ITS values.
- (4)
- In the alligator and longitudinal cracking areas of long-term field service expressways, surface and underneath layers present very close fatigue trend lines, indicating that the fatigue behavior of asphalt mixture in surface and underneath layers are aged to the same extent after ten years or eight years’ field service.
- (5)
- The fatigue performance differs for different expressways. Expressways that carried the busiest daily traffic with large amount of heavy trucks show the lowest fatigue life. While expressway that has the longest service time has the most sensitivity to loading stress. These rules can be summarized by stating that heavier daily traffic results in shorter fatigue life, and longer service time results in more sensitivity to loading stress.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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Expressway No. | Failures | Specimens No. | Field Information |
---|---|---|---|

HD expressway | Transversal cracking (TC) | HD-TC-s and -u | Built in 2003; Cored in 2013 |

Longitudinal cracking (LC) | HD-LC-s and -u | ||

Alligator cracking (AC) | HD-AC-s and -u | ||

Potholes (PH) | HD-PH-s and -u | ||

Raveling (RA) | HD-RA-s and -u | ||

SH expressway | Longitudinal cracking (LC) | SH-LC-s and -u | Built in 2006; Cored in 2014 |

Alligator cracking (AC) | SH-AC-s | ||

Raveling (RA) | SH-RA-s and -u | ||

TJ expressway | Longitudinal cracking (LC) | TJ-LC-s | Built in 2007; Cored in 2014 |

**Note.**‘‘-s” and ‘‘-u” stand for specimens from surface and underneath layer, respectively.

Indirect Tensile Strength (MPa) | H-TC | H-LC | H-AC | H-RA | H-PH |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Surface layer | 4.41 | 4.64 | 3.32 | 3.14 | 2.82 |

Underneath layer | 3.33 | 3.56 | 2.76 | 2.64 | 2.97 |

Specimen No. | Fatigue Equation | Fatigue Parameters | R^{2} | |
---|---|---|---|---|

K | n | |||

H-TC-s | ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{f}}=5.58\times {10}^{5}{\left(\frac{1}{{\mathsf{\sigma}}_{0}}\right)}^{5.6307}$ | $5.58\times {10}^{5}$ | 5.631 | 0.94 |

H-TC-u | ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{f}}=2.12\times {10}^{4}{\left(\frac{1}{{\mathsf{\sigma}}_{0}}\right)}^{3.2284}$ | $2.12\times {10}^{4}$ | 3.228 | 0.71 |

H-LC-s | ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{f}}=6.33\times {10}^{6}{\left(\frac{1}{{\mathsf{\sigma}}_{0}}\right)}^{11.173}$ | $6.33\times {10}^{6}$ | 11.173 | 0.87 |

H-LC-u | ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{f}}=8.78\times {10}^{6}{\left(\frac{1}{{\mathsf{\sigma}}_{0}}\right)}^{18.061}$ | $8.78\times {10}^{6}$ | 18.061 | 0.84 |

H-AC-s | ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{f}}=2.16\times {10}^{5}{\left(\frac{1}{{\mathsf{\sigma}}_{0}}\right)}^{6.7652}$ | $2.16\times {10}^{5}$ | 6.765 | 0.96 |

H-AC-u | ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{f}}=1.02\times {10}^{5}{\left(\frac{1}{{\mathsf{\sigma}}_{0}}\right)}^{6.1724}$ | $1.02\times {10}^{5}$ | 6.172 | 0.94 |

Specimen No. | Fatigue Equation | Fatigue Parameters | R^{2} | |
---|---|---|---|---|

K | n | |||

H-RA-s | ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{f}}=3.48\times {10}^{4}{\left(\frac{1}{{\mathsf{\sigma}}_{0}}\right)}^{8.1483}$ | $3.48\times {10}^{4}$ | 8.148 | 0.92 |

H-RA-u | ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{f}}=9.10\times {10}^{3}{\left(\frac{1}{{\mathsf{\sigma}}_{0}}\right)}^{3.8938}$ | $9.10\times {10}^{3}$ | 3.894 | 0.89 |

H-PH-s | ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{f}}=8.32\times {10}^{4}{\left(\frac{1}{{\mathsf{\sigma}}_{0}}\right)}^{3.5627}$ | $8.32\times {10}^{4}$ | 3.563 | 0.93 |

H-PH-u | ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{f}}=8.90\times {10}^{4}{\left(\frac{1}{{\mathsf{\sigma}}_{0}}\right)}^{6.3209}$ | $8.90\times {10}^{4}$ | 6.321 | 0.92 |

Indirect Tensile Strength (MPa) | S-LC | S-AC | T-LC |
---|---|---|---|

Surface layer | 3.34 | 3.31 | 2.29 |

Underneath layer | 2.01 | -- | -- |

Specimen No. | Fatigue Equation | Fatigue Parameters | R^{2} | |
---|---|---|---|---|

K | n | |||

S-LC-s | ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{f}}=4.06\times {10}^{4}{\left(\frac{1}{{\mathsf{\sigma}}_{0}}\right)}^{3.0009}$ | $4\times {10}^{4}$ | 3.001 | 0.88 |

S-LC-u | ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{f}}=2.13\times {10}^{4}{\left(\frac{1}{{\mathsf{\sigma}}_{0}}\right)}^{2.9025}$ | $2.13\times {10}^{4}$ | 2.903 | 0.78 |

S-AC-s | ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{f}}=1.27\times {10}^{5}{\left(\frac{1}{{\mathsf{\sigma}}_{0}}\right)}^{8.2614}$ | $1.27\times {10}^{5}$ | 8.261 | 0.95 |

S-RA-s | ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{f}}=2.05\times {10}^{5}{\left(\frac{1}{{\mathsf{\sigma}}_{0}}\right)}^{6.725}$ | $2.50\times {10}^{5}$ | 6.725 | 0.91 |

S-RA-u | ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{f}}=6.34\times {10}^{4}{\left(\frac{1}{{\mathsf{\sigma}}_{0}}\right)}^{6.0854}$ | $6.34\times {10}^{4}$ | 6.085 | 0.90 |

T-LC-s | ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{f}}=3.86\times {10}^{4}{\left(\frac{1}{{\mathsf{\sigma}}_{0}}\right)}^{3.3757}$ | $3.86\times {10}^{4}$ | 3.376 | 0.92 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Cui, P.; Xiao, Y.; Fang, M.; Chen, Z.; Yi, M.; Li, M.
Residual Fatigue Properties of Asphalt Pavement after Long-Term Field Service. *Materials* **2018**, *11*, 892.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060892

**AMA Style**

Cui P, Xiao Y, Fang M, Chen Z, Yi M, Li M.
Residual Fatigue Properties of Asphalt Pavement after Long-Term Field Service. *Materials*. 2018; 11(6):892.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060892

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Cui, Peide, Yue Xiao, Mingjing Fang, Zongwu Chen, Mingwei Yi, and Mingliang Li.
2018. "Residual Fatigue Properties of Asphalt Pavement after Long-Term Field Service" *Materials* 11, no. 6: 892.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060892