Next Article in Journal
Broadband Polarization Conversion Metasurface Based on Metal Cut-Wire Structure for Radar Cross Section Reduction
Previous Article in Journal
Standard Reference Materials for Cement Paste, Part I: Suggestion of Constituent Materials Based on Rheological Analysis
Open AccessArticle

Sustainable Blended Cements—Influences of Packing Density on Cement Paste Chemical Efficiency

by Yaniv Knop 1,* and Alva Peled 2
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Ariel University, Ariel 40700, Israel
2
Department of Structural Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 653, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(4), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040625
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 24 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
This paper addresses the development of blended cements with reduced clinker amount by partial replacement of the clinker with more environmentally-friendly material (e.g., limestone powders). This development can lead to more sustainable cements with reduced greenhouse gas emission and energy consumption during their production. The reduced clicker content was based on improved particle packing density and surface area of the cement powder by using three different limestone particle diameters: smaller (7 µm, 3 µm) or larger (70 µm, 53 µm) than the clinker particles, or having a similar size (23 µm). The effects of the different limestone particle sizes on the chemical reactivity of the blended cement were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG/DTG), loss on ignition (LOI), isothermal calorimetry, and the water demand for reaching normal consistency. It was found that by blending the original cement with limestone, the hydration process and the reactivity of the limestone itself were increased by the increased surface area of the limestone particles. However, the carbonation reaction was decreased with the increased packing density of the blended cement with limestone, having various sizes. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainability; packing density; surface area; blended cement; hydration; carbonation; limestone sustainability; packing density; surface area; blended cement; hydration; carbonation; limestone
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Knop, Y.; Peled, A. Sustainable Blended Cements—Influences of Packing Density on Cement Paste Chemical Efficiency. Materials 2018, 11, 625.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop