Study on the Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance and Degradation Mechanism of Diclofenac Sodium under the System of Hetero-Structural CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 with H2O2
School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan 528000, China
College of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
Key Laboratory of Soil Contamination Bioremediation of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang A & F University, Hangzhou 311300, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(4), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040511
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage Detection and Characterization of High Performance Composites)
Two kinds of CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 with different heterojunction structures were prepared based on the combination of hydrothermal and in-situ precipitation methods with surfactant additives (sodium citrate and sodium stearate), and their characteristics were systematically resolved by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)/ High-resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), UV-vis Diffuse Reflectance Spectra (DRS) and Photoluminescence (PL). Meanwhile, the photocatalytic properties of the catalysts were determined for diclofenac sodium (DS) degradation and the photocatalytic mechanism was also explored. The results indicate that both of the two kinds of CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 exhibit higher photocatalytic efficiency, mineralization rate, and stability than that of pure CuBi2O4 or Ag3PO4. Moreover, the catalytic activity of CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 can be further enhanced by adding H2O2. The free radical capture experiments show that in the pure CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 photocatalytic system, the OH• and O2•− are the main species participating in DS degradation; however, in the CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 photocatalytic system with H2O2, all OH•, h+, and O2•− take part in the DS degradation, and the contribution order is OH• > h+ > O2•−. Accordingly, the photocatalytic mechanism of CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 could be explained by the Z-Scheme theory, while the catalysis of CuBi2O4/Ag3PO4 with H2O2 follows the heterojunction energy band theory.