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Materials 2018, 11(2), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11020289

Magnetic Characterization of Direct-Write Free-Form Building Blocks for Artificial Magnetic 3D Lattices

1
Institute of Physics, Goethe University, 60438 (M) Frankfurt, Germany
2
Institute of Materials Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, 1060 Vienna, Austria
3
Graz Centre for Electron Microscopy, 8010 Graz, Austria
4
Institute of Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis, Graz University of Technology, 8010 Graz, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Superconductive and Magnetic Nanomaterials)
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Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) nanomagnetism, where spin configurations extend into the vertical direction of a substrate plane allow for more complex, hierarchical systems and the design of novel magnetic effects. As an important step towards this goal, we have recently demonstrated the direct-write fabrication of freestanding ferromagnetic 3D nano-architectures of ferromagnetic CoFe in shapes of nano-tree and nano-cube structures by means of focused electron beam induced deposition. Here, we present a comprehensive characterization of the magnetic properties of these structures by local stray-field measurements using a high-resolution micro-Hall magnetometer. Measurements in a wide range of temperatures and different angles of the externally applied magnetic field with respect to the surface plane of the sensor are supported by corresponding micromagnetic simulations, which explain the overall switching behavior of in part rather complex magnetization configurations remarkably well. In particular, the simulations yield coercive and switching fields that are in good quantitative correspondence with the measured coercive and switching fields assuming a bulk metal content of 100 at % consisting of bcc Co 3 Fe. We show that thermally-unstable magnetization states can be repetitively prepared and their lifetime controlled at will, a prerequisite to realizing dynamic and thermally-active magnetic configurations if the building blocks are to be used in lattice structures. View Full-Text
Keywords: focused electron beam induced deposition; micro-Hall magnetometry; magnetic nanostructures; micromagnetic simulations; artificial magnetic lattices focused electron beam induced deposition; micro-Hall magnetometry; magnetic nanostructures; micromagnetic simulations; artificial magnetic lattices
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Al Mamoori, M.K.I.; Keller, L.; Pieper, J.; Barth, S.; Winkler, R.; Plank, H.; Müller, J.; Huth, M. Magnetic Characterization of Direct-Write Free-Form Building Blocks for Artificial Magnetic 3D Lattices. Materials 2018, 11, 289.

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