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Soft-Material-Based Smart Insoles for a Gait Monitoring System

Department of Medical IT Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, Asan 31538, Korea
Wellness Coaching Service Research Center, Soonchunhyang University, Asan 31538, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(12), 2435;
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 18 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
Spatiotemporal analysis of gait pattern is meaningful in diagnosing and prognosing foot and lower extremity musculoskeletal pathologies. Wearable smart sensors enable continuous real-time monitoring of gait, during daily life, without visiting clinics and the use of costly equipment. The purpose of this study was to develop a light-weight, durable, wireless, soft-material-based smart insole (SMSI) and examine its range of feasibility for real-time gait pattern analysis. A total of fifteen healthy adults (male: 10, female: 5, age 25.1 ± 2.64) were recruited for this study. Performance evaluation of the developed insole sensor was first executed by comparing the signal accuracy level between the SMSI and an F-scan. Gait data were simultaneously collected by two sensors for 3 min, on a treadmill, at a fixed speed. Each participant walked for four times, randomly, at the speed of 1.5 km/h (C1), 2.5 km/h (C2), 3.5 km/h (C3), and 4.5 km/h (C4). Step count from the two sensors resulted in 100% correlation in all four gait speed conditions (C1: 89 ± 7.4, C2: 113 ± 6.24, C3: 141 ± 9.74, and C4: 163 ± 7.38 steps). Stride-time was concurrently determined and R2 values showed a high correlation between the two sensors, in both feet (R2 ≥ 0.90, p < 0.05). Bilateral gait coordination analysis using phase coordination index (PCI) was performed to test clinical feasibility. PCI values of the SMSI resulted in 1.75 ± 0.80% (C1), 1.72 ± 0.81% (C2), 1.72 ± 0.79% (C3), and 1.73 ± 0.80% (C4), and those of the F-scan resulted in 1.66 ± 0.66%, 1.70 ± 0.66%, 1.67 ± 0.62%, and 1.70 ± 0.62%, respectively, showing the presence of a high correlation (R2 ≥ 0.94, p < 0.05). The insole developed in this study was found to have an equivalent performance to commercial sensors, and thus, can be used not only for future sensor-based monitoring device development studies but also in clinical setting for patient gait evaluations. View Full-Text
Keywords: conductive textile; capacitive pressure sensor; gait; monitoring; phase coordination index conductive textile; capacitive pressure sensor; gait; monitoring; phase coordination index
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, C.; Kim, Y.; Min, S.D. Soft-Material-Based Smart Insoles for a Gait Monitoring System. Materials 2018, 11, 2435.

AMA Style

Wang C, Kim Y, Min SD. Soft-Material-Based Smart Insoles for a Gait Monitoring System. Materials. 2018; 11(12):2435.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Changwon, Young Kim, and Se D. Min 2018. "Soft-Material-Based Smart Insoles for a Gait Monitoring System" Materials 11, no. 12: 2435.

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