Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has been introduced in previous studies as a synergistic technique to modify the surface chemistry and topography of titanium-based implants to control their biocompatibility. In this study, the effectiveness of CMP implementation on titanium-based implant surface modification was compared to machined implants, such as baseline and etching and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) particle-based sand blasting treatments, in terms of the surface chemical and mechanical performance. Initially, a lab-scale 3D CMP technique was developed and optimized on commercial dental implant samples. The mechanical competitiveness of the dental implants treated with the selected methods was examined with the Vickers microhardness test as well as pull-out force and removal torque force measurements. Furthermore, the surface structures were quantified through evaluation of the arithmetic mean roughness parameter (Ra). Subsequently, the surface chemistry changes on the treated implants were studied as wettability by contact angle measurement, and surface passivation was evaluated through electrochemical methods. In each evaluation, the CMP treated samples were observed to perform equal or better than the baseline machined implants as well as the current method of choice, the BCP treatment. The ability to control the surface topography and chemistry simultaneously by the use of CMP technique is believed to be the motivation for its adaptation for the modification of implant surfaces in the near future.
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