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Open AccessArticle

Time-Resolved Tomographic Quantification of the Microstructural Evolution of Ice Cream

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE, UK
2
Research Complex at Harwell, RAL, Didcot OX11 0FA, UK
3
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
4
The Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
5
Unilever R&D, Colworth MK44 1LQ, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2031; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102031
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In-Situ X-Ray Tomographic Study of Materials)
Ice cream is a complex multi-phase colloidal soft-solid and its three-dimensional microstructure plays a critical role in determining the oral sensory experience or mouthfeel. Using in-line phase contrast synchrotron X-ray tomography, we capture the rapid evolution of the ice cream microstructure during heat shock conditions in situ and operando, on a time scale of minutes. The further evolution of the ice cream microstructure during storage and abuse was captured using ex situ tomography on a time scale of days. The morphology of the ice crystals and unfrozen matrix during these thermal cycles was quantified as an indicator for the texture and oral sensory perception. Our results reveal that the coarsening is due to both Ostwald ripening and physical agglomeration, enhancing our understanding of the microstructural evolution of ice cream during both manufacturing and storage. The microstructural evolution of this complex material was quantified, providing new insights into the behavior of soft-solids and semi-solids, including many foodstuffs, and invaluable data to both inform and validate models of their processing. View Full-Text
Keywords: ice cream; microstructure; tomography; ice crystals; coarsening; soft solids ice cream; microstructure; tomography; ice crystals; coarsening; soft solids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mo, J.; Guo, E.; McCartney, D.G.; Eastwood, D.S.; Bent, J.; Van Dalen, G.; Schuetz, P.; Rockett, P.; Lee, P.D. Time-Resolved Tomographic Quantification of the Microstructural Evolution of Ice Cream. Materials 2018, 11, 2031.

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