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Open AccessArticle

A Study on Thermal and Nanomechanical Performance of Cellulose Nanomaterials (CNs)

by Nadir Yildirim 1,2,* and Stephen Shaler 2,3
1
Forest Industry Engineering, Bursa Technical University, Bursa 16310, Turkey
2
School of Forest Resources, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469-5755, USA
3
Advanced Structures & Composites Center, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2017, 10(7), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10070718
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 11 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocellulose-Based Functional Materials)
Wood-based cellulose nanomaterials (CNs) (specifically, cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs)) are environmentally sourced low-impact materials with remarkable thermal, mechanical, and physical properties. This uniqueness makes them great candidates for creating nanocomposite materials with a wide range of attributes. Investigating the morphological, thermal, and nanomechanical properties of CNs becomes crucial to intelligent development of novel composite materials. An atomic force microscope equipped with a nanoindenter was used to investigate the compression modulus of CNFs and CNCs using two analytical approaches (denoted as Oliver Pharr (OP) and Fused Silica (FS)). The CNC modulus values (ECNC-FS = 21.1 GPa, ECNC-OP = 28.7 GPa) were statistically larger than those obtained from CNFs (ECNF-FS = 12.4 GPa, ECNF-OP = 15.1 GPa). Additionally, the FS analytical approach provided statistically significant lower estimates. Thermal stability of CNFs and CNCs was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. Significant differences were found between CNF and CNC onset temperatures (OnsetCNC = 228.2 °C, OnsetCNF = 279.9 °C), decomposition temperatures (DTGACNC = 247.9 °C, DTGACNF = 331.4 °C), and residues (ResidueCNC = 34.4%, ResidueCNF = 22.8%). This research enriches the information on thermal stability and nanomechanical performance of cellulose nanomaterials, and provides increased knowledge on understanding the effect of CNs as a matrix or reinforce in composites. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellulose nanomaterials (CNs); cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs); cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs); atomic force microscope (AFM); nanoindentation (NI); nanomechanical properties; thermal stability; oliver-pharr approach; fused silica approach cellulose nanomaterials (CNs); cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs); cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs); atomic force microscope (AFM); nanoindentation (NI); nanomechanical properties; thermal stability; oliver-pharr approach; fused silica approach
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Yildirim, N.; Shaler, S. A Study on Thermal and Nanomechanical Performance of Cellulose Nanomaterials (CNs). Materials 2017, 10, 718.

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