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Open AccessArticle

High Performances of Artificial Nacre-Like Graphene Oxide-Carrageenan Bio-Nanocomposite Films

by Wenkun Zhu 1,2,*, Tao Chen 2, Yi Li 1, Jia Lei 2, Xin Chen 1, Weitang Yao 1 and Tao Duan 1,*
State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China
Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, Mianyang 621010, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Biqiong Chen
Materials 2017, 10(5), 536;
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 1 May 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
This study was inspired by the unique multi-scale and multi-level ‘brick-and-mortar’ (B&M) structure of nacre layers. We prepared the B&M, environmentally-friendly graphene oxide-carrageenan (GO-Car) nanocomposite films using the following steps. A natural polyhydroxy polymer, carrageenan, was absorbed on the surface of monolayer GO nanosheets through hydrogen-bond interactions. Following this, a GO-Car hybridized film was produced through a natural drying process. We conducted structural characterization in addition to analyzing mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the films. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that the nanocomposite films had a similar morphology and structure to nacre. Furthermore, the results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) were used to explain the GO-Car interaction. Analysis from static mechanical testers showed that GO-Car had enhanced Young’s modulus, maximum tensile strength and breaking elongation compared to pure GO. The GO-Car nanocomposite films, containing 5% wt. of Car, was able to reach a tensile strength of 117 MPa. The biocompatibility was demonstrated using a RAW264.7 cell test, with no significant alteration found in cellular morphology and cytotoxicity. The preparation process for GO-Car films is simple and requires little time, with GO-Car films also having favorable biocompatibility and mechanical properties. These advantages make GO-Car nanocomposite films promising materials in replacing traditional petroleum-based plastics and tissue engineering-oriented support materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: nacre; graphene oxide; carrageenan; self-assembly; nanocomposite films nacre; graphene oxide; carrageenan; self-assembly; nanocomposite films
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Zhu, W.; Chen, T.; Li, Y.; Lei, J.; Chen, X.; Yao, W.; Duan, T. High Performances of Artificial Nacre-Like Graphene Oxide-Carrageenan Bio-Nanocomposite Films. Materials 2017, 10, 536.

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