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Open AccessReview

Solutions for Critical Raw Materials under Extreme Conditions: A Review

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Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome, Italy
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Department of Materials, Environmental Sciences and Urban Planning (SIMAU), Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche 12, 60131 Ancona, Italy
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Institute of Mechanics, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, 8700 Leoben, Austria
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Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6, Czech Republic
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Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 6, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
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National R&D Institute for Nonferrous and Rare Metals, Biruintei Blvd. No. 102, 077145 Pantelimon, Romania
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mark T. Whittaker
Materials 2017, 10(3), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10030285
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
In Europe, many technologies with high socio-economic benefits face materials requirements that are often affected by demand-supply disruption. This paper offers an overview of critical raw materials in high value alloys and metal-matrix composites used in critical applications, such as energy, transportation and machinery manufacturing associated with extreme working conditions in terms of temperature, loading, friction, wear and corrosion. The goal is to provide perspectives about the reduction and/or substitution of selected critical raw materials: Co, W, Cr, Nb and Mg. View Full-Text
Keywords: critical raw materials; substitution; alloys; composites; extreme conditions; cobalt; tungsten; chromium; niobium; magnesium critical raw materials; substitution; alloys; composites; extreme conditions; cobalt; tungsten; chromium; niobium; magnesium
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grilli, M.L.; Bellezze, T.; Gamsjäger, E.; Rinaldi, A.; Novak, P.; Balos, S.; Piticescu, R.R.; Ruello, M.L. Solutions for Critical Raw Materials under Extreme Conditions: A Review. Materials 2017, 10, 285.

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