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Open AccessArticle

Strain Evolution in Cold-Warm Forged Steel Components Studied by Means of EBSD Technique

Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padua, I-36100 Vicenza, Italy
Zoppelletto S.p.A., Via Camisana, I-36040 Vicenza, Italy
Department of Engineering Design and Materials, NTNU, Richard Birkelands vei 2b, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2017, 10(12), 1441;
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD) in conjunction with Field-Emission Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG-ESEM) has been used to evaluate the microstructural and local plastic strain evolution in different alloys (AISI 1005, AISI 304L and Duplex 2205) deformed by a single-stage cold and warm forging process. The present work is aimed to describe the different behavior of the austenite and ferrite during plastic deformation as a function of different forging temperatures. Several topological EBSD maps have been measured on the deformed and undeformed states. Then, image quality factor, distributions of the grain size and misorientation have been analyzed in detail. In the austenitic stainless steel, the γ-phase has been found to harden more easily, then α-phase and γ-phase in AISI 1005 and in duplex stainless steel, sequentially. Compared to the high fraction of continuous dynamic recrystallized austenitic zones observed in stainless steels samples forged at low temperatures, the austenitic microstructure of samples forged at higher temperatures, 600–700 °C, has been found to be mainly characterized by large and elongated grains with some colonies of fine nearly-equiaxed grains attributed to discontinuous dynamic recrystallization. View Full-Text
Keywords: low-carbon steel; stainless steel; EBSD; cold and warm forging low-carbon steel; stainless steel; EBSD; cold and warm forging
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Ferro, P.; Bonollo, F.; Bassan, F.; Berto, F. Strain Evolution in Cold-Warm Forged Steel Components Studied by Means of EBSD Technique. Materials 2017, 10, 1441.

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