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Materials 2017, 10(11), 1304;

Three-Dimensional ZnO Hierarchical Nanostructures: Solution Phase Synthesis and Applications

College of Science, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang 050018, China
Nanomaterials Research Group, Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zinc Oxide Nanostructures: Synthesis and Characterization)
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Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have been studied extensively in the past 20 years due to their novel electronic, photonic, mechanical and electrochemical properties. Recently, more attention has been paid to assemble nanoscale building blocks into three-dimensional (3D) complex hierarchical structures, which not only inherit the excellent properties of the single building blocks but also provide potential applications in the bottom-up fabrication of functional devices. This review article focuses on 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures, and summarizes major advances in the solution phase synthesis, applications in environment, and electrical/electrochemical devices. We present the principles and growth mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures via different solution methods, with an emphasis on rational control of the morphology and assembly. We then discuss the applications of 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures in photocatalysis, field emission, electrochemical sensor, and lithium ion batteries. Throughout the discussion, the relationship between the device performance and the microstructures of 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures will be highlighted. This review concludes with a personal perspective on the current challenges and future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: zinc oxide; hierarchical nanostructures; solution phase synthesis; photocatalysis; field emission; sensor; lithium ion batteries zinc oxide; hierarchical nanostructures; solution phase synthesis; photocatalysis; field emission; sensor; lithium ion batteries

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Wang, X.; Ahmad, M.; Sun, H. Three-Dimensional ZnO Hierarchical Nanostructures: Solution Phase Synthesis and Applications. Materials 2017, 10, 1304.

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