Design, materials, and performance are important factors in the research of bone tissue scaffolds. This work briefly describes the bone scaffolds and their anatomic structure, as well as their biological and mechanical characteristics. Furthermore, we reviewed the characteristics of metal materials, inorganic materials, organic polymer materials, and composite materials. The importance of the bionic design in preoperative diagnosis models and customized bone scaffolds was also discussed, addressing both the bionic structure design (macro and micro structure) and the bionic performance design (mechanical performance and biological performance). Materials and performance are the two main problems in the development of customized bone scaffolds. Bionic design is an effective way to solve these problems, which could improve the clinical application of bone scaffolds, by creating a balance between mechanical performance and biological performance.
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