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Energies 2016, 9(9), 707;

Exergy Analysis of the Supply of Energy and Material Resources in the Swedish Society

1,* and 2
School of Business, Engineering and Science, Halmstad University, Halmstad 30118, Sweden
Öxbo, Lerum 44392, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: George Tsatsaronis
Received: 2 July 2016 / Revised: 24 August 2016 / Accepted: 30 August 2016 / Published: 2 September 2016
PDF [2838 KB, uploaded 2 September 2016]


Exergy is applied to the Swedish energy supply system for the period 1970–2013. Exergy flow diagrams for the systems of electricity and district heating as well as for the total supply system of energy and material resources for 2012 are presented. The share of renewable use has increased in both electricity and district heat production. The resource use is discussed in four sectors: residential and service, transportation, industry and agriculture. The resource use is also analyzed with respect to exergy efficiency and renewable share. The total exergy input of energy and material resources amounts to about 2700 PJ of which about 530 PJ was used for final consumption in 2012. The results are also compared with similar studies. Even though the share of renewable resource use has increased from 42% in 1980 to 47% in 2012, poor efficiency is still occurring in transportation, space heating, and food production. A strong dependence on fossil and nuclear fuels also implies a serious lack of sustainability. A more exergy efficient technology and a higher renewable energy share are needed in order to become a more sustainable society. View Full-Text
Keywords: exergy; renewable; exergy flow diagram; electricity; district heating; Sweden exergy; renewable; exergy flow diagram; electricity; district heating; Sweden

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Gong, M.; Wall, G. Exergy Analysis of the Supply of Energy and Material Resources in the Swedish Society. Energies 2016, 9, 707.

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