Next Article in Journal
Recent Progress on the Key Materials and Components for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells in Vehicle Applications
Next Article in Special Issue
Perspectives on Near ZEB Renovation Projects for Residential Buildings: The Spanish Case
Previous Article in Journal
Gas-Path Health Estimation for an Aircraft Engine Based on a Sliding Mode Observer
Previous Article in Special Issue
Energy Optimization in Smart Homes Using Customer Preference and Dynamic Pricing

City Carbon Footprint Networks

Sustainability Assessment Program (SAP), Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Integrated Sustainability Analysis (ISA), School of Physics A28, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jukka Heinonen
Energies 2016, 9(8), 602;
Received: 15 June 2016 / Revised: 21 July 2016 / Accepted: 22 July 2016 / Published: 29 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient City)
Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF) networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI) to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility. View Full-Text
Keywords: cities; carbon footprint (CF); urban greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; carbon accounting; city carbon map; multi-region input-output modelling cities; carbon footprint (CF); urban greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; carbon accounting; city carbon map; multi-region input-output modelling
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, G.; Wiedmann, T.; Hadjikakou, M.; Rowley, H. City Carbon Footprint Networks. Energies 2016, 9, 602.

AMA Style

Chen G, Wiedmann T, Hadjikakou M, Rowley H. City Carbon Footprint Networks. Energies. 2016; 9(8):602.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Guangwu, Thomas Wiedmann, Michalis Hadjikakou, and Hazel Rowley. 2016. "City Carbon Footprint Networks" Energies 9, no. 8: 602.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop