- freely available
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8263-8285; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088263
2. Method and Materials
- What is the overall case for renewables in the GCC region?
- What are the most challenging barriers to scale up RE investments in the GCC?
- Which of the following risks do you think exist in the GCC for RE investments?
- Ignoring issues of their current political feasibility, which of the following policies and incentives do you think could make a major impact to stimulate investment in renewable energy in the GCC region?
- Many countries have developed renewable energy targets or road maps. Which of the following statements do you agree with?
3. Results: Literature-Based Analysis
3.1. Drivers for Renewable Energy in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries
- Renewables could help to satisfy the rapidly increasing energy and electricity demand in the GCC, which is driven by economic and population growth, and by an increasing need for water desalination;
- Renewables would diversify the domestic energy mix and free fossil fuel resources for more profitable export;
- A renewable energy manufacturing industry, especially for currently immature but highly promising technologies (e.g., CSP), is an option to diversify the GCC economies, attain technological leadership and create new high-quality jobs outside the fossil fuel sector, or to offer a new energy export commodity;
- Expanding renewables would reduce the climate footprint of the GCC countries.
3.1.1. Increasing Demand
3.1.2. Subsidies and Reduced Fossil Fuel Export Opportunities
|Country||Domestic residential||Foreign residential||Industrial|
|Country||Target (% of Generation)||Year|
|United Arab Emirates|
|Dubai||1% of installed capacity |
5% of installed capacity
3.1.3. Economic Diversification and Job Creation
3.1.4. Carbon Footprint
3.2. Barriers to Expansion of Renewables in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries
- Absence of a market for renewables, due to fossil fuel and energy-use subsidies, as well as market entry difficulties due to the non-liberalized market structure;
- Absence of support policies for renewables, including both grid access regulations and financial support schemes;
- Resistance from incumbent actors in the fossil fuel industry and policies to implement such schemes;
- Insufficient know-how and experience of renewables (e.g., lack of engineers);
- Intermittent wind and PV generation is not easily integrated into the existing electricity system.
3.2.1. Energy Subsidies and Inefficient Bureaucracy: Rentierism
3.2.2. Insufficient Experience and Knowledge
3.2.3. Integration of Intermittent Generation
4. Questionnaire Results
4.1. The Need
4.2. The Barriers
4.3. The Risks
4.4. The Policy Solutions
4.5. The Roadmaps and Targets
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