# Active Participation of Air Conditioners in Power System Frequency Control Considering Users’ Thermal Comfort

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Fuzzy Rule Based Decentralized Control for Frequency Regulation

#### 2.1. Fuzzy Evaluation of Human Thermal Comfort

^{3}and the relative humidity is expressed in the form of percentage as the ratio of the water vapor density to the saturation water vapor density, which is used in this paper.

_{1}, λ

_{2}] be the weight set for temperature and relative humidity, respectively, which satisfies

_{1}weighs the influence of temperature on thermal comfort and λ

_{2}weighs the influence of relative humidity. Note that λ

_{2}is different for three influence ranks shown in Figure 3. When the influence rank of relative humidity is obtained, the weight set λ can be determined.

_{1j}is the jth temperature membership degree and μ

_{2j}is the jth relative humidity membership degree (j = 1, 2,…,7). Ranks of the comprehensive thermal comfort are {very cold, cold, slightly cold, comfortable, slightly hot, hot, very hot}. The thermal comfort rank is defuzzified by the maximum operator:

_{max}= h

_{4}, the thermal comfort rank is “comfortable”.

#### 2.2. Decentralized Control Design for Frequency Regulation

_{u}is the activation frequency value of UFLS and f

_{l}is the lowest value of normal frequency.

_{old}is the initial temperature; and T

_{new}is the higher temperature.

_{u}, the air conditioners will be switched off directly.

#### 2.3. Aggregation of Air Conditioners’ Response

**x**,

**u**,

**y**,

**A**,

**B**and

**C**are detailed in Appendix A.

_{j}(t) is the power demand of air conditioner j at time t.

- (1)
- (2)
- To attract more electricity users to participate in active load control, a power grid can design various incentive tools. Incentive-based demand response programs have been carried out in recent years [44,45,46]. Users can contract with the power grid on the compensation and award packages for their comfort loss and contributions for the power grid.
- (3)
- Conventionally, generating units supply spinning reserves and non-spinning reserves for the power system. At demand peak periods, the cost of maintaining high reserve level is very large. Air conditioners are capable of providing reserves with much lower cost than generating units. The economic saving through the proposed strategy can be quantified by the value of reduced reserve capacity procured from the generation side.

## 3. Power System Dynamics Model

#### 3.1. Dynamical Model of Generating Units

_{s}is nominal angle speed; P

_{m}and P

_{e}are, respectively, mechanical power and electrical power; and M is angular momentum of the generator. Electrical power can be derived by

_{L}is power demand of load.

_{HP}is intermediate pressure cylinder mechanical ratio; and T

_{CH}and T

_{RH}are volume effect time constants.

_{G}is governor time constant. As shown in Figure 5, R is the gain of the feedback loop for the governor, which determines the speed droop characteristic.

#### 3.2. Network Model

**I**and

**V**are injection current vector and bus voltage vector, respectively; and

**Y**is nodal admittance matrix.

_{xi}and I

_{yi}are, respectively, real and imaginary part of injection current; V

_{xi}and V

_{yi}are, respectively, real and imaginary part of voltage; ${X}_{di}^{\prime}$ is direct-axis transient reactance; and ${E}_{i}^{\prime}$ is electromotive force of the generator.

_{xi_c}and I

_{yi_c}are, respectively, real and imaginary part of injection current of conventional loads; and I

_{xi_ac}and I

_{yi_ac}are corresponding values of air conditioners, respectively. The conventional loads can be described by their static characteristics and dynamic characteristics, respectively.

_{L}

_{(0)}and Q

_{L}

_{(0)}are pre-disturbance value of real power and reactive power of a load, respectively; and V

_{L}

_{(0)}is pre-disturbance value of voltage at the load bus. The load comprises constant impedance, constant current and constant power proportions and a, b, c are corresponding coefficients satisfying

_{i_c}

_{(0)}and Q

_{i_c}

_{(0)}are, respectively, pre-disturbance value of real power and reactive power; and V

_{i}

_{(0)}is pre-disturbance value of voltage. Constant current and constant power proportions are also readily to be included in the power network model.

_{i_m}and X

_{i_m}are equivalent resistance and reactance, respectively.

_{i_ac}and Q

_{i_ac}are real power and reactive power of the aggregation of air conditioners, respectively.

_{xi}, I

_{yi}, V

_{xi}and V

_{yi}are determined, the electrical power of generator i can be computed as

#### 3.3. Solving Dynamics

_{ij}and B

_{ij}are the real and imaginary part of nodal admittance, respectively.

## 4. Case Studies

#### 4.1. Experimental Results of Decentralized Control Design

Weights | Relative humidity influence ranks | ||
---|---|---|---|

Small | Medium | Large | |

λ_{1} | 0.9 | 0.8 | 0.6 |

λ_{2} | 0.1 | 0.2 | 0.4 |

Thermal comfort ranks | Very cold | Cold | Slightly cold | Comfortable | Slightly hot | Hot | Very hot |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Before control | 0.133 | 0.146 | 0.133 | 0.142 | 0.146 | 0.146 | 0.154 |

After control | 0.092 | 0.1625 | 0.150 | 0.296 | 0.2125 | 0.083 | 0.004 |

#### 4.2. Simulation Results of Test Power System

Parameters | Values (s) | Parameters | Values(p. u.) |
---|---|---|---|

T_{G} | 0.2 | D | 1 |

T_{RH} | 7 | R | 0.05 |

T_{CH} | 0.3 | F_{HP} | 0.3 |

M | 10 |

Frequency (Hz) | Ratio of air conditioning demand in load at bus 8 | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

r = 0 | r = 0.1 | r = 0.2 | r = 0.3 | r = 0.4 | r = 0.5 | |

Lowest point | 49.31 | 49.36 | 49.45 | 49.49 | 49.56 | 49.64 |

Steady state | 49.59 | 49.62 | 49.68 | 49.71 | 49.73 | 49.81 |

## 5. Conclusions

## Acknowledgments

## Author Contributions

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A. Thermodynamics Model for Air-Conditioned Space

_{ew}is external wall temperature; X

_{in}is indoor temperature; and X

_{iw}is internal wall temperature.

_{ext}is external temperature evolution; P

_{e-w}is solar radiation on external wall faces; P

_{eq}is solar radiation which introduces through glazed surfaces plus internal load generation; P

_{HVAC}is a value associated with power supply; m

_{on-off}is a discrete variable which represents the operating state of the device (1 for ON and 0 for OFF); and X

_{adj-r}is adjoining room temperature evolution.

**A**,

**B**and

**C**are as follows:

_{ew}and C

_{iw}are, respectively, thermal capacity of external walls and internal walls; C

_{in}is indoor thermal capacity; R

_{cew}is external convection resistance between external environment and external wall faces; R

_{ew}is half equivalent thermal resistance of external walls; R

_{iw}is half equivalent thermal resistance of the internal walls; and R

_{gs}is equivalent thermal resistance of external glazed surfaces.

Parameters | Expectation | Variance |
---|---|---|

C_{ew} | 1.875 MJ/°C | 0.03 MJ/°C |

C_{in} | 1.2 MJ/°C | 0.03 MJ/°C |

C_{iw} | 3.1 MJ/°C | 0.05 MJ/°C |

R_{gs} | 0.08 °C/W | 0.0002 °C/W |

R_{iw} | 0.01 °C/W | 0.00002 °C/W |

R_{ew} | 0.028 °C/W | 0.00002 °C/W |

R_{cew} | 0.005 °C/W | 0.00002 °C/W |

Parameters | Range (°C) | Parameters | Range (W) |
---|---|---|---|

X_{ext} | [25,28] | P_{eq} | [490,510] |

X_{in} | [18,33] | P_{e-w} | [190,210] |

X_{iw} | [20,30] | P_{HVAC} | [2500,3000] |

X_{ew} | [24,27] | ||

X_{adj-r} | [20,30] |

## Appendix B. Thermal Membership Functions in Winter

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Zhang, R.; Chu, X.; Zhang, W.; Liu, Y. Active Participation of Air Conditioners in Power System Frequency Control Considering Users’ Thermal Comfort. *Energies* **2015**, *8*, 10818-10841.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en81010818

**AMA Style**

Zhang R, Chu X, Zhang W, Liu Y. Active Participation of Air Conditioners in Power System Frequency Control Considering Users’ Thermal Comfort. *Energies*. 2015; 8(10):10818-10841.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en81010818

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Zhang, Rongxiang, Xiaodong Chu, Wen Zhang, and Yutian Liu. 2015. "Active Participation of Air Conditioners in Power System Frequency Control Considering Users’ Thermal Comfort" *Energies* 8, no. 10: 10818-10841.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en81010818