# Study of the Heat Exchange and Relaxation Conditions of Residual Stresses Due to Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

## 3. Theoretical Background

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## 4. Discussion

#### 4.1. Analysis of Residual Stress Distribution

**(a)****Effect of welding speed on residual stress**

**(b)****Effect of thickness on residual stress**

#### 4.2. Metallurgical Transformation

**(a)****Analysis metallographic**

**(b)****Analysis by HV microhardness test**

**(c)****Residual stresses Distribution in the longitudinal and transverse direction of the weld**

## 5. Conclusions

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- The results obtained for the RS distribution using the finite element model are in agreement with those provided by the reference [33] (experimental values).
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- According to the results simulated by the 3-D model and based on the reference data, the temperature distribution around the heat source is constant while the welding torch goes around the stainless-steel pipe.
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- The welding RS peak values are located within the HAZ of the weld metal, which explains the appearance of a fracture in that zone when the mechanical parts are put into operation.
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- The increase in the welding speed reduces the intensity of the RS and its decrease leads to the growth of the latter. Perfect welding depends on an optimal speed, which ensures a good bond associated with moderate RS.
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- The effect of the thickness in the assembly by welding is important, and the increase in the amplitude of the RS increases with the thickness of the bead, according to the elastic limit of the material.
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- The heat input during the welding process decreases, which leads to a decrease in the size of delta ferrites, dendrite length, and inter-dendrite spacing content in the microstructure of the weld metal. This would consequently induce a decrease in the RS value.
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- According to micrographic analysis, the BM microstructure of stainless-steel consists of equiaxed austenite grains of various sizes, limited by grain boundaries. Moreover, twin crystals can be observed in the austenitic matrix (γ) in addition to small amounts of delta ferrite (δ) in the grain boundaries with no carbide precipitate. In the zone HAZ, an increase in austenite grain size when getting closer to the FZ is noted—for the structure of the weld metal is very fine in comparison with the BM structure. In fact, it has a dendritic solidification aspect; it involves two phases: the austenitic γ-phase and the δ-ferrite phase. It is characterized by a vermicular morphology.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 9.**(

**a**) Axial stress distribution on the inside surface, (

**b**) Hoop stress distribution on the inside surface.

**Figure 13.**Welding arc efficiency as a function of speed (GTAW TIG welding) [38].

**Figure 20.**(

**a**) Average values of longitudinal residual stresses before and after treatment. (

**b**) Average values of transversal residual stresses before and after treatment.

$\mathrm{a}$ | $\mathrm{Parameter}\mathrm{along}\mathrm{the}\mathrm{x}\mathrm{direction}\left(\mathrm{m}\right)$ | 0.03 |

${\mathrm{c}}_{\mathrm{f}}$ | $\mathrm{Parameter}\mathrm{along}\mathrm{the}\mathrm{y}\mathrm{direction},\mathrm{front}\left(\mathrm{m}\right)$ | 0.03 |

${\mathrm{c}}_{\mathrm{r}}$ | $\mathrm{Parameter}\mathrm{along}\mathrm{the}\mathrm{y}\mathrm{direction},\mathrm{rear}\left(\mathrm{m}\right)$ | 0.09 |

$\mathrm{B}$ | $\mathrm{Parameter}\mathrm{along}\mathrm{the}\mathrm{z}\mathrm{direction}\left(\mathrm{m}\right)$ | 0.03 |

${\mathrm{f}}_{\mathrm{f}}$ | Front fraction | 0.6 |

${\mathrm{f}}_{\mathrm{r}}$ | Rear fraction | 1.4 |

$\mathrm{V}$ | $\mathrm{Welding}\mathrm{speed}\left(\mathrm{m}/\mathrm{s}\right)$ | 0.05 |

$\mathsf{H}$ | Welding efficiency | 0.7 |

$Q$ | $\mathrm{Heat}\mathrm{input}\left(\mathrm{j}/\mathrm{m}\right)$ | 931 |

${\mathrm{r}}_{1}$ | $\mathrm{Radius}\mathrm{of}\mathrm{first}\mathrm{pass}\left(\mathrm{m}\right)$ | 0.056 |

${\mathrm{r}}_{2}$ | $\mathrm{Radius}\mathrm{of}\mathrm{sec}\mathrm{ond}\mathrm{pass}\left(\mathrm{m}\right)$ | 0.06 |

${\mathrm{W}}_{1}$ | $\mathrm{Angular}\mathrm{velocity}\mathrm{in}\mathrm{the}\mathrm{first}\mathrm{pass}\left(\mathrm{rad}/\mathrm{s}\right)$ | 0.089 |

${\mathrm{W}}_{2}$ | $\mathrm{Angular}\mathrm{velocity}\mathrm{in}\mathrm{the}\mathrm{sec}\mathrm{ond}\mathrm{pass}\left(\mathrm{rad}/\mathrm{s}\right)$ | 0.083 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Djeloud, H.; Moussaoui, M.; Kouider, R.; Al-Kassir, A.; Carrasco-Amador, J.P.
Study of the Heat Exchange and Relaxation Conditions of Residual Stresses Due to Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel. *Energies* **2023**, *16*, 3176.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073176

**AMA Style**

Djeloud H, Moussaoui M, Kouider R, Al-Kassir A, Carrasco-Amador JP.
Study of the Heat Exchange and Relaxation Conditions of Residual Stresses Due to Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel. *Energies*. 2023; 16(7):3176.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073176

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Djeloud, Hamza, Mustafa Moussaoui, Rahmani Kouider, Awf Al-Kassir, and Juan Pablo Carrasco-Amador.
2023. "Study of the Heat Exchange and Relaxation Conditions of Residual Stresses Due to Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel" *Energies* 16, no. 7: 3176.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073176