Comparison of Indoor Environment and Energy Consumption before and after Spread of COVID-19 in Schools in Japanese Cold-Climate Region
2. Infection Control in School Facilities
2.1. Characteristics of School Facilities
2.2. Infection Control in School Facilities in Cold Regions
2.3. Target Facilities
2.4. Development of CO2-Concentration Meters with Warning Displays
3. Indoor Environment of Classrooms
4. Changes in Energy Consumption before and after Spread of Novel Coronavirus Infection
4.1. Change in Daily Energy Consumption in Schools with Electric Heaters
4.2. Change of Monthly Primary Energy Consumption
- Guidelines for infectious diseases in school buildings in cold regions of Japan were similar to those in warmer regions and inadequate for COVID-19. The problem was that the ventilation methods proposed by the national and local governments could not be continued because of the deterioration in the indoor environment caused by increased ventilation.
- The CO2-concentration meters with warning displays were effective in controlling open-window ventilation. More than 70% of the students participated in the open-window ventilation.
- In total, 90% of students felt hotter than usual in summer, and 40% felt colder than average in winter.
- In total, 40% of the students complained that it was cold, although the room temperature was kept above 18 °C. This is due to the distribution of room temperature and airflow.
- The opening and closing of the windows to increase ventilation did not work well during the coldest months due to students’ complaints of being cold.
- In schools with electric heating, energy consumption increased due to increased ventilation, but not below 0 °C, as windows were closed due to the cold. It means that the ventilation rate did not increase; thus, the ventilation method needs to be improved.
- Calculating the primary energy consumption of 343 schools in Sapporo, 75% showed an increase in the slope of primary energy consumption relative to outdoor temperature after a COVID-19 outbreak. In addition, the increase in slope was about 7%. In other words, the increase in ventilation resulted in a 7% deterioration in energy efficiency.
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|School Name||Floor Area [m2]||Heating System|
|A High School||12,255||Electric heater|
|B High School||10,541||Electric heater|
|C Junior High School||10,202||Electric heater|
|D Junior High School||9702||Heavy oil and kerosene oil boiler|
|E Elementary School||6346||Electric heater|
|School Name||Slope in BC||Slope in AC||ISC in BC||ISC in AC||R2 BC||R2 AC|
|A High School||−257||<−265||18.1||20.2||0.60||0.67|
|B High School||−335||>−318||14.3||15.8||0.72||0.68|
|C Junior High School||−225||<−259||13.9||15.4||0.66||0.52|
|E Elementary School||−124||<−172||14.5||15.8||0.57||0.58|
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Mori, T.; Akamatsu, T.; Kuwabara, K.; Hayashi, M. Comparison of Indoor Environment and Energy Consumption before and after Spread of COVID-19 in Schools in Japanese Cold-Climate Region. Energies 2022, 15, 1781. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15051781
Mori T, Akamatsu T, Kuwabara K, Hayashi M. Comparison of Indoor Environment and Energy Consumption before and after Spread of COVID-19 in Schools in Japanese Cold-Climate Region. Energies. 2022; 15(5):1781. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15051781Chicago/Turabian Style
Mori, Taro, Taisei Akamatsu, Kouhei Kuwabara, and Motoya Hayashi. 2022. "Comparison of Indoor Environment and Energy Consumption before and after Spread of COVID-19 in Schools in Japanese Cold-Climate Region" Energies 15, no. 5: 1781. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15051781