Global Warming: Is It (Im)Possible to Stop It? The Systems Thinking Approach
1.1. Physiological Temperature Control
“All processes that are stable we shall predict. All processes that are unstable we shall control… This was John von Neumann’s dream”. (p. 182)
- Specifying the objective (constraint or limit) that the variable to be controlled must achieve; if several objectives are to be achieved at the same time, governance must determine a “policy” that indicates the priorities and intensity regarding the achievement of the objectives.
- Identifying other variables, causally connected to the one to be controlled, that man can modify with some known process to correct the one to be controlled. For this reason, they are called “control levers”; control is “multi-levered” when it is carried out by means of several levers at the same time. When control is multi-levered, the “manager” of the control system must identify a “strategy” that specifies how many and which levers to use and the intensity of use of each.
- Measuring the “error”, i.e., the “deviation” between the “target value” (or the constraint or limit) and the “actual value” of the variable to be controlled, i.e., [error = target value—actual value].
- Acting on the “control levers”, so that, depending on the extent of the error, they assume the values necessary to modify the variable to be controlled; the levers can be natural, physiological, automatic or voluntary, artificial, or in support of the artificial ones.
- The process can also be repetitive, attempting to change the dynamics of the variable to be controlled in multiple, successive steps.
- The control is successful when target value = actual value, i.e., when error = 0.
“We have thus examples of negative feedbacks to stabilize temperature and negative feedbacks to stabilize velocity”. (p. 97)
“So a great variety of systems in technology and in living nature follow the feedback scheme, and it is well-known that a new discipline, called Cybernetics, was introduced by Norbert Wiener to deal with these phenomena. The theory tries to show that mechanisms of a Feedback nature are the base of teleological or purposeful behavior in man-made machines as well as in living organisms, and in social systems”. (p. 44)
1.2. Ambient Temperature Control
1.3. Objectives and Structure of the Paper
2. James Lovelock’s Theoretical Model of Planetary Thermo-Regulation: Daisyworld and the “Albedo” Effect
2.1. GAIA and Daisyworld
“An entity comprising a whole planet and with a powerful capacity to regulate the climate needs a name to match. It was the novelist William Golding who proposed the name Gaia. Gladly we accepted his suggestion and Gaia is also the name of the hypothesis of science which postulates that the climate and the composition of the Earth always are close to an optimum for whatever life inhabits it”. (Online)
“I failed to make clear that it was not the biosphere alone that did the regulating but the whole thing, life, the air, the oceans, and the rocks. The entire surface of the Earth including life, is a self-regulating entity and this is what I mean by Gaia”. (Preface)
“Lynn Margulis, the coauthor of Gaia hypotheses, … in 1979 she wrote, in particular, that only homeorhetic and not homeostatic balances are involved: that is, the composition of Earth’s atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere are regulated around “set points” as in homeostasis, but those set points change with time”. (Online)
2.2. The Automatic Control System of Global Warming in Daisyworld
- Intensity of solar radiation: this is an exogenous, uncontrollable variable; Lovelock did not provide any obstacle to radiation or any barrier to the reflection of light.
- Temperature of the planet: this is the variable to be controlled (kept under control), whose dynamics, in case of variation with respect to an equilibrium temperature due to greater or lesser radiation, must be modified and brought back to the equilibrium value.
- Mass of daisies, black and white: these represent the control levers that act on the temperature in Daisyworld through the size of the albedo effect, which depends on the masses themselves.
- Dynamics of the mass of white daisies: since they live well in a warm environment, when the radiation becomes more intense and the planet warms, they multiply and increase in number; the opposite dynamic, contraction, manifests itself when the planet cools.
- Dynamics of the mass of black daisies: since they live well in a cold environment, when the radiation becomes more intense and the planet warms, they die and their numbers diminish; the opposite dynamic, contraction, manifests itself when the planet warms.
- Albedo effect, or reflective power; this expresses the percentage of incident sunlight on the planet that is reflected in all directions, thereby preventing warming (to a certain extent); therefore, it represents the variable that allows temperature to be controlled. The magnitude of the albedo effect depends on the extension of the masses of daisies, according to the two loops in the model.
- Loop (B1): the white daisies reflect light; the greater their extension, the greater the albedo effect. Sunlight is reflected and this hinders heating, causing the temperature to fall.
- Loop (B2): the black daisies do not reflect light, thus retaining heat; the greater their extension, the less sunlight is reflected and the more the temperature rises.
- In the event of an increase in temperature, the two loops produce a joint action, as shown below (the case of a decrease in temperature is just as easily represented, with appropriate adaptations).
- + radiation = + temperature → + white daisies → [same direction of variation, “s”]
- + white daisies = + albedo effect [same direction of variation, “s”]
- + albedo effect → - warming = + temperature reduction [opposite variation, “o”]
- + radiation = + temperature → - black daisies → [opposite variation, “o”]
- - black daisies = + albedo effect [opposite variation, “o”]
- + albedo effect → - warming = + temperature reduction [opposite variation, “o”]
3. Why the Daisyworld Model Is Not Applicable to Earth
3.1. Structural Differences between Daisyworld and Earth
“The planetary albedo is partitioned into a component due to atmospheric reflection and a component due to surface reflection by using shortwave fluxes at the surface and top of the atmosphere in conjunction with a simple radiation model. The vast majority of the observed global average planetary albedo (88%) is due to atmospheric reflection. Surface reflection makes a relatively small contribution to planetary albedo because the atmosphere attenuates the surface contribution to planetary albedo by a factor of approximately 3”.
3.2. The Fundamental Difference: Regulation and Anti-Regulation
4. Global Warming as the Output of a “Productive Machine”: The Global Economic System, Population and the Aspiration for Well-Being, The GEAM Model
4.1. Greenhouse Gases and the Greenhouse Effect
“Three major pollution issues are often put together in people’s minds: global warming, ozone depletion (the ozone hole) and acid rain. Although there are links between the science of these three issues (the chemicals which deplete ozone and the particles which are involved in the formation of acid rain also contribute to global warming), they are essentially three distinct problems. Their most important common feature is their large scale”. (Preface)
“Greenhouse gases are considered to be the most important cause of global warming in many models that explain the phenomenon”. (p. 345)
4.2. The Engine of Global Warming: Global Economic Activity
“Any kind of production flow is obtained not from individual production organizations but from a widespread (global) Production Network of interconnected production modules located in different places and times. All these modules are, consciously or not, necessarily connected, interacting and cooperating in a coordinated way to combine and arrange, step by step, the factors, materials, components, manpower, machines and equipment to obtain flows of products—final goods, in particular—and to sell these where there is a demand for them”.
5. The Three-Lever Strategy for the (Difficult) “Artificial” Human Control of Global Warming: The Removal–Consumption–Production Strategy
5.1. The “Social Alarm”
“An atmosphere of that gas would give to our earth a high temperature; and if as some suppose, at one period of its history the air had mixed with it a larger proportion than at present, an increased temperature... must have necessarily resulted”.
- Securing global net zero by mid-century and keeping 1.5 degrees within reach.
- Accelerating the phase-out of coal;
- Curtailing deforestation;
- Speeding up the switch to electric vehicles;
- Encouraging investment in renewables.
5.2. The “Removal–Consumption–Production Strategy” to Control Global Warming
- + global warming → + Climate Change ?→ + social alarm [same direction of variation, “s”]
- + social alarm → + measures by the supernational regulators [same direction, “s”]
- + measures by the supernational regulators → + limits to Greenhouse gas emissions [same, “s”]
- + tolerance limits to greenhouse gas emissions → + urgency of a strategy of control [“s”]
- + urgency of a strategy of control → + activation of the strategy against emissions [“s”]
- + activation of the strategy → - negative effects of global economic activity [opposite direction, “o”]
- - effects of global warming on economic activity?→ - CO2 emissions [“s”]
- - CO2 emissions → - increase in the amount of greenhouse gases [“s”]
- - increase in the amount of greenhouse gases?→ - heat trapped in atmosphere [“s”]
- - heat trapped in atmosphere → - global warming (+ slowdown in growth [“s”])
- global warming →—social alarm [same direction of variation, “s”]
5.3. Some Examples of the Strategic Levers to Control Global Warming (a Brief Discussion)
“In the long run, we need to be aware that renewable energies may have limitations. The European Commission tells us that they may not be enough to achieve the ambitious targets we have set ourselves for 2030 and 2050. Therefore, we need to start developing viable alternatives now, because it will only be possible to fully enjoy them in a few years’ time. In the meantime, we need to invest in innovative carbon capture technologies”.(Mario Draghi, COP26. https://www.governo.it/it/node/18445) (accessed on 7 January 2022)
“It is physically possible to capture CO2 directly from the air and immobilize it in geological structures. Air capture differs from conventional mitigation in three key aspects. First, it removes emissions from any part of the economy with equal ease or difficulty, so its cost provides an absolute cap on the cost of mitigation. Second, it permits reduction in concentrations faster than the natural carbon cycle: the effects of irreversibility are thus partly alleviated. Third, because it is weakly coupled to existing energy infrastructure, air capture may offer stronger economies of scale and smaller adjustment costs than the more conventional mitigation technologies”.
“The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point”. (p. 4217)
6. The Gulf Stream: A “Natural” Lever for the Self-Control of Global Warming through Glaciation
6.1. The Mitigating Effect of the North Atlantic Climate and the Consequences of a Possible Slowdown of the Gulf Stream
“The Gulf Stream carries the warm, poleward return flow of the wind-driven North Atlantic subtropical gyre and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. This northward flow drives a significant meridional heat transport. Various lines of evidence suggest that Gulf Stream heat transport profoundly influences the climate of the entire Northern Hemisphere and, thus, Europe’s climate on timescales of decades and longer”. (p. 113)
6.2. The Gulf Stream as a Natural Control Lever for Global Warming
7. Four Dangerous “Natural” Loops That Block the Human Control of Global Warming
7.1. Decrease in the Albedo Effect Due to the Shrinkage in Reflective Surfaces
“Polar ice caps are melting as global warming causes climate change. We lose Arctic Sea ice at a rate of almost 13% per decade, and over the past 30 years, the oldest and thickest ice in the Arctic has declined by a stunning 95%. If emissions continue to rise unchecked, the Arctic could be ice-free in the summer by 2040. But what happens in the Arctic does not stay in the Arctic. Sea ice loss has far-reaching effects around the world”.
“Arctic experts say, the accelerated melting could produce an ice-free summer Arctic by 2030. The environmental repercussions from such an extensive defrosting of the region are enormous. Open, dark water absorbs heat from sunlight, while an icy skin reflects much of it back into space. Hence, the more open ocean, the faster the melting of the remaining ice, creating a feedback loop that could eat away at the adjacent Greenland Ice Sheet”. (online)
7.2. Reduction in the Albedo Effect Due to an Increase in Forest-Covered Areas
“Many scientists applaud the push for expanding forests, but some urge caution. They argue that forests have many more-complex and uncertain climate impacts than policymakers, environmentalists and even some scientists acknowledge. Although trees cool the globe by taking up carbon through photosynthesis, they also emit a complex potpourri of chemicals, some of which warm the planet. The dark leaves of trees can also raise temperatures by absorbing sunlight. Several analyses in the past few years suggest that these warming effects from forests could partially or fully offset their cooling ability. … At the same time, some researchers worry about publishing results challenging the idea that forests cool the planet. One scientist even received death threats after writing a commentary that argued against planting trees to prevent climate change”.
7.3. Expansion of Dark Algae
“Harmful algae usually bloom during the warm summer season or when water temperatures are warmer than usual. Warmer water due to climate change might favor harmful algae in a number of ways: … Algal blooms absorb sunlight, making water even warmer and promoting more blooms”.
“Warming in the Antarctic Peninsula has already exceeded 1.5 °C. over pre-industrial temperatures, and current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projections indicate further global increases. Set against a background of natural decadal temperature variability, climatic changes on the Peninsula are already influencing its vegetation. With the available area for plant colonisation on the Peninsula likely to increase by up to threefold due to this warming, understanding how snow algae fit into Antarctica’s biosphere and their probable response to warming is critical to understanding the overall impact of climate change on Antarctica’s vegetation. … Several studies have used satellite observations to investigate snow and ice algae on larger scales, implicating algal blooms as significant drivers for darkening and enhancing melt of the Greenland ice sheet”.
7.4. Thawing of the Tundra
“Because the world is getting warmer, permanently frozen ground around the arctic, known as permafrost, is thawing. When permafrost thaws, the ground collapses and sinks. Often a wetland forms within the collapsed area. Conversion of permanently frozen landscapes to wetlands changes the exchange of greenhouse gases between the land and atmosphere, which impacts global temperatures. Wetlands release methane into the atmosphere. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas. The ability of methane to warm the Earth is 32 times stronger than that of carbon dioxide over a period of 100 years”.
“Alexander Sokolov and Dorothee Ehrich spotted 15 patches of trembling or bubbling grass-covered ground. When punctured they emitted methane and carbon dioxide, according to measurements, although so far no details have been given. The reason is as yet unclear, but one possible explanation of the phenomenon is abnormal heat that caused permafrost to thaw, releasing gases. Alexander Sokolov said that this summer is unusually hot on the Arctic island, a sign of which is polar bears moving from the frozen sea to the island. Scientists have warned at the potential catastrophic impact of global warming leading to the release into the atmosphere of harmful gases hitherto frozen in the ground or under the sea. A possibility is that the trembling tundra on Bely Island is this process in action”.
“The impact on the climate may mean an influx of permafrost-derived methane into the atmosphere in the mid-21st century, which is not currently accounted for in climate projections. The Arctic landscape stores one of the largest natural reservoirs of organic carbon in the world in its frozen soils. But once thawed, soil microbes in the permafrost can turn that carbon into the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane, which then enter into the atmosphere and contribute to climate warming”.
“Very reliable measurements allow us to track carbon as carbon dioxide (CO2) in the global atmosphere but plants, soils and permafrost together contain at least five times more carbon and the global ocean at least fifty times more carbon than the atmosphere”.
8. Conclusions and Suggestions
8.1. The Role of Models for the Understanding of Phenomena
“… “understanding the world” (comprehending) means in fact being able to construct coherent and meaningful mental and formal models—that make up our “knowledge”—which allow us to form and transmit new knowledge”. (p. 2)
“The mental image of the world around us that we carry in our heads is a model. One does not have a city or a government, or a country in his head. He has only selected concepts and relationships, which he uses to represent the real system”. (p. 213)
“The psychological core of understanding, I shall assume, consists of having a “working model” of the phenomenon in your mind. If you understand inflation, a mathematical proof, the way a computer works, DNA, divorce, then you have a mental representation that serves as a model of an entity in much the same way as, say, a clock functions as a model of the earth’s rotation … Many of the models in people’s minds are little more than high-grade simulations, but they are none the less useful provided that the picture is accurate”. (p. 2)
“Our ‘mental models’ determine not only how we make sense of the world, but how we take action. Mental models can be simple generalizations such as ‘people are untrustworthy’ or they can be complex theories, such as my assumptions about why members of my family interact as they do. But what is important to grasp is that mental models are active—they shape how we act. If we believe people are untrustworthy, we act differently than if we believed they were trustworthy […] Why are mental models so powerful in affecting what we do? In part, because they affect what we see. Two people with different mental models can observe the same event and describe it differently, because they’ve looked at different details”. (p. 160)
8.2. Three Fundamental Variables on Which the Models Proposed in This Study Are Based
- I identified “global economic activity” as the “human machine” that produces global warming, translating this mental model into the formal Global Economic Activity Model (GEAM) (Section 3, Figure 3). Global economic activity produces, distributes, uses and consumes the goods and services necessary for man to survive and to raise his standard of living. Apart from human labor, the energy for production is provided by “machines” that require the consumption of fossil fuels that generate huge “volumes of greenhouse gases” that trap the heat from solar radiation, thereby increasing global warming. The GEAM allowed me to identify three strategic areas for outlining a control strategy by activating suitable levers (Section 4, Figure 4). The first area is represented by the investment and actions to contain greenhouse gas emissions produced by man; the second area relates to the changes in consumption habits to stimulate the demand for goods whose production, distribution, use and consumption minimize the processes that produce emissions; the third area regards the actions to abandon or modify polluting production processes in favor of those that minimize the contribution to the greenhouse effect.
- I observed that the size and intensity of global economic activity depends on the size and quality of the population; on the one hand, an increase in population will have to be sustained by a greater production of goods and services; on the other hand, more intense global economic activity will be necessary when the populations of emerging economies, with a reduced standard of living, low consumption and limited property, rightly aspire to an increase in the quantity and quality of their consumption and of the goods they possess, requiring greater production from global economic activity.
- Continuing with the logic of systems thinking, I considered natural phenomena activated by the same global warming trend with balancing or reinforcing loops, which could reduce or accentuate the dynamics of global warming. First, I devised a model (Section 6, Figure 6) to illustrate the positive effect on the natural control of global warming that would be generated by the slowdown of the Gulf Stream because of the melting of Arctic ice due to the increased temperatures around the world. Subsequently, I considered the negative effect of the acceleration of global warming produced by the following four very negative natural processes, also generated by global warming (Section 7, Figure 7): (a) the reduction in the expanse of ice and (b) the increase in forested areas in the north, which would reduce the albedo effect, limiting the reflection of sunlight, thus favoring the increase in global warming; additionally contributing, to a large extent, to this development is the warming of the oceans accentuated by (c) the proliferation of dark algae that retain heat due to radiation; finally, I considered the potentially disastrous effect that would result from (d) the thawing of the tundra and the consequent release into the atmosphere of large volumes of methane, no longer trapped in the ice, with the power to increase the greenhouse effect 30 times more than the increase due to CO2 emissions.
8.3. A First Limitation of This Study: It Does Not Consider a Possible Population Control Strategy
8.4. The Specific Control Levers of Global Warming and Their Interactions
“As countries set net-zero emission targets, and increase their climate ambitions under the Paris Agreement, they have not explicitly recognized or planned for the rapid reduction in fossil fuel production that these targets will require. Rather, the world’s governments plan to produce more than twice the amount of fossil fuels in 2030 than would be consistent with limiting warming to 1.5 °C. The production gap has remained largely unchanged since our first analysis in 2019.”.
“According to our assessment of recent national energy plans and projections, governments are in aggregate planning to produce around 110% more fossil fuels in 2030 than would be consistent with limiting global warming to 1.5 °C, and 45% more than would be consistent with limiting warming to 2 °C, on a global level. By 2040, this excess grows to 190% and 89%, respectively”.
8.5. Conclusions: Global Warming—Is It (Im)possibile to Stop It?
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. The Language of Systems Thinking
“… a developmental path for acquiring certain skills or competencies. […] To practice a discipline is to be a lifelong learner. You “never arrive”; you spend your life mastering disciplines” (p. 101)
““System dynamics” is a professional field that deals with the complexity of systems. System dynamics is the necessary foundation underlying effective thinking about systems. System dynamics deals with how things change through time, which covers most of what most people find important. System dynamics involves interpreting real life systems into computer simulation models that allow one to see how the structure and decision-making policies in a system create its behavior” (p. 1)
- Mella, P. The Magic Ring. Systems Thinking Approach to Control Systems; Springer: New York, NY, USA, 2021. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dyson, F. Infinite in All Directions; Harper and Row: New York, NY, USA, 1988. [Google Scholar]
- Wiener, N. Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine; MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 1961. [Google Scholar]
- von Bertalanffy, L. General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications; Braziller: New York, NY, USA, 1968. [Google Scholar]
- Petit, J.R.; Jouzel, J.; Raynaud, D.; Barkov, N.I.; Barnola, J.M.; Basile, I.; Bender, M.; Chappellaz, J.; Davis, M.; Delaygue, G.; et al. Climate and Atmospheric History of the Past 420,000 Years from the Vostok Ice Core, Antarctica. Nature 1999, 399, 429–436. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Earle, S. Physical Geology; Bccampus: Victoria, BC, Canada, 2015; Available online: https://opentextbc.ca/geology/ (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Wikipedia. Timeline of Glaciation. 2021. Available online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_glaciation (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Heintzman, R. The Political Culture of Quebec, 1840–1960. Can. J. Political Sci. 1983, 16, 3–59. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- McGillivray, B. Montreal. Quebec, Canada. Britannica. 2021. Available online: https://www.britannica.com/place/Montreal/Administration-and-society (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Thoma, M.; Gumart, C. Quebec: A History of Culture and Politics; Capilano University: North Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Ritchie, H.; Roser, M. CO2 and Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Published online at OurWorldInData.org. 2020. Available online: https://ourworldindata.org/co2-and-other-greenhouse-gas-emissions (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- WMO—World Meteorological Organization. Greenhouse Gas Bulletin. The State of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere Based on Global Observations through 2020. 2021. Available online: https://library.wmo.int/doc_num.php?explnum_id=10838 (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Maslin, M. Global Warming; Oxford University Press: New York, NY, USA, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Mimura, N. Sea-level rise caused by climate change and its implications for society. Proc. Jpn. Acad. 2013, 89, 281–301. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Weishaupt, A.; Ekardt, F.; Garske, B.; Stubenrauch, J.; Wieding, J. Land Use, Livestock, Quantity Governance, and Economic Instruments—Sustainability Beyond Big Livestock Herds and Fossil Fuels. Sustainability 2020, 12, 2053. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Jevrejeva, S.; Grinsted, A.; Moore, J.C. Upper limit for sea level projections by 2100. Environ. Res. Lett. 2014, 9, 104008. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Baede, A.P.M. The climate system: An overview. In Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis: Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Houghton, J.T., Ed.; Cambridge University Press: New York, NY, USA, 2001; Volume 9, pp. 85–98. [Google Scholar]
- Drake, F. Global Warming. The Science of Climate Change; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2000. [Google Scholar]
- Houghton, J.T.; Ding, Y.D.J.G.; Griggs, D.J.; Noguer, M.; van der Linden, P.J.; Dai, X.; Maskell, K.; Johnson, C.A. Climate Change: The Scientific Basis; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2001; Available online: https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/07/WG1_TAR_FM.pdf (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Stott, P.A.; Allen, M.; Christidis, N.; Dole, R.M.; Hoerling, M.; Huntingford, C.; Pall, P.; Perlwitz, J.; Stone, D. Attribution of Weather and Climate-Related Extreme Events. In Climate Science for Serving Society; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2013; pp. 307–337. Available online: https://www.wcrp-climate.org/conference2011/documents/Stott.pdf (accessed on 29 November 2021). [CrossRef]
- Trenberth, K.E. Changes in precipitation with climate change. Clim. Res. 2011, 47, 123–138. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Emanuel, K.; Mann, M. Atlantic hurricane trends linked to climate change. EOS 2006, 87, 233–244. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Senge, P. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization; Doubleday/Currency: New York, NY, USA, 1990. [Google Scholar]
- Gaia Hypothesis. Environment and Ecology. GAIA Theory: Model and Metaphor for the 21st Century. 2021. Available online: http://www.environment.gen.tr/gaia/70-gaia-hypothesis.html (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Lovelock, J.E. What Is Gaia? 2011. Available online: http://www.ecolo.org/lovelock/what_is_Gaia.html (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Lovelock, J.E. The Ages of Gaia: A Biography of Our Living Earth; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 1988. [Google Scholar]
- Lovelock, J.E. GAIA, a New Look at Life on Earth; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 1979. [Google Scholar]
- Bice, D. Exploring the Dynamics of Earth Systems. A Guide to Constructing and Experimenting with Computer Models of Earth Systems Using STELLA; Department of Geosciences, Penn State University: University Park, PA, USA, 2021; Available online: https://personal.ems.psu.edu/~dmb53/DaveSTELLA/entrance.htm (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Wood, A.J.; Ackland, G.J.; Dyke, J.G.; Williams, H.T.; Lenton, T.M. Daisyworld: A review. Rev. Geophys. 2008, 46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Donohoe, A.; Battisti, D.S. Atmospheric and surface contributions to planetary albedo. J. Clim. 2011, 24, 4402–4418. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Calvert, J.G. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Applied Chemistry Division Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry. Glossary of Atmospheric Chemistry Terms (Recommendations 1990). 1990. Available online: http://publications.iupac.org/pac/pdf/1990/pdf/6211x2167.pdf (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- McNaught, D.; Wilkinson, A.; IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, The “Gold Book”, online version 2019; Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 1997; Volume 62, pp. 2167–2219. [Google Scholar]
- Houghton, J.T. Global Warming: The Complete Briefing; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 1994. [Google Scholar]
- Maslow, A.H. Religions, Values, and Peak Experiences; Penguin: New York, NY, USA, 1970. [Google Scholar]
- Mella, P. The ghost in the production machine: The laws of production networks. Kybernetes 2019, 48, 1301–1329. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Cipolla, C. The Economic History of World Population; Penguin Books: Harmondsworth, UK, 1962. [Google Scholar]
- Canadell, J.G.; Le Quéré, C.; Raupach, M.R.; Field, C.B.; Buitenhuis, E.T.; Ciais, P.; Conway, T.J.; Gillett, N.P.; Houghton, R.A.; Marland, G. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2007, 104, 18866–18870. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Swiss Federal Office of Energy. Global Use of Nuclear Energy. 2021. Available online: https://www.bfe.admin.ch/bfe/en/home/supply/nuclear-energy/tasks-of-the-sfoe/global-use-of-nuclear-energy.html (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- WNA-World Nuclear Association. Nuclear Power in the World Today. 2021. Available online: https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/current-and-future-generation/nuclear-power-in-the-world-today.aspx (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Wikipedia. Vehicles. 2021. Available online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_vehicles_per_capita (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Wikipedia. Ferrari Sales. 2021. Available online: https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferrari#Vendite (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Malthus, T.R. Essay on Population as It Affects the Future Improvement of Society; Printed for J. Johnson; St. Paul’s Church-Yard: London, UK, 1798; (Reprinted by The Lawbook Exchange, Clark, New Jersey, 2007); 1798. [Google Scholar]
- PRB. Population Reference Bureau. Why Is the U.S. Birth Rate Declining? Washington, D.C. 2021. Available online: https://www.prb.org/resources/why-is-the-u-s-birth-rate-declining/ (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Whelpton, P.K. Causes of the Decline in Birth Rates. Milbank Meml. Fund Q. 1935, 13, 237–251. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fourier, J. Remarques gènèrales sur les tempèratures du globe terrestre et des espaces planètaires. Ann. Chim. Phys. 1824, 27, 136–167. [Google Scholar]
- Wikipedia. Greenhouse Effect. 2021. Available online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_effect (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Huddleston, A. Happy 200th Birthday to Eunice Foote, Hidden Climate Science Pioneer. In Climate.Gov; 2019; (updated 2021). Available online: https://www.climate.gov/news-features/features/happy-200th-birthday-eunice-foote-hidden-climate-science-pioneer (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Foote, E. Circumstances affecting the Heat of the Sun’s Rays. Am. J. Sci. Arts 1856, 22, 382. Available online: https://archive.org/details/mobot31753002152491/page/221/mode/2up?view=theater (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Budyko, M.I. Climatic Changes; AGU: Washington, DC, USA, 1977. [Google Scholar]
- Ekardt, F.; Wieding, J.; Zorn, A. Paris Agreement, Precautionary Principle and Human Rights: Zero Emissions in Two Decades? Sustainability 2018, 10, 2812. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Rudgard, O. Cop26 Summit 2021: What Is the UN Climate Change Conference and Why Does It Matter? The Telegraph, 3 November 2021. Available online: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/environment/2021/11/01/cop26-summit-2021-un-climate-change-conference-what-when/(accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Bruckner, T. Decarbonizing the Global Energy System: An Updated Summary of the IPCC Report on Mitigating Climate Change. Energy Technol. 2016, 4, 19–30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- IPCC. Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN); Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- IEA. World Energy Outlook 2021; IEA: Paris, France, 2021; Available online: https://www.iea.org/reports/world-energy-outlook-2021 (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Rösch, C.; Roßmann, M.; Weickert, S. Microalgae for integrated food and fuel production. GCB Bioenergy 2019, 11, 326–334. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- DeFoliart, G.R. An overview of the role of edible insects in preserving biodiversity. Ecol. Food Nutr. 1997, 36, 109–132. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- FaO. The Contribution of Insects to Food Security, Livelihoods and the Environment. 2010. Available online: https://www.fao.org/3/i3264e/i3264e00.pdf (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Boot-Handford, M.E.; Abanades, J.C.; Anthony, E.J.; Blunt, M.J.; Brandani, S.; Mac Dowell, N.; Fernández, J.R.; Ferrari, M.C.; Gross, R.; Hallett, J.P.; et al. Carbon capture and storage update. Energy Environ. Sci. 2014, 7, 130–137. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Keith, D.W.; Ha-Duong, M.; Stolaroff, J.K. Climate Strategy with CO2 Capture from the Air. Clim. Chang. 2006, 74, 17–45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yale Climate Connections. Startup converts Carbon Dioxide from the Air into Diamonds. YCC TEAM, 2021. Available online: https://yaleclimateconnections.org/2021/06/startup-converts-carbon-dioxide-from-the-air-into-diamonds/(accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Salter, S.; Sortino, G.; Latham, J. Sea-going hardware for the cloud albedo method of reversing global warming. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. 2008, 366, 3989–4006. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Crutzen, P. Albedo Enhancement by Stratospheric Sulfur Injections: A Contribution to Resolve a Policy Dilemma? Clim. Chang. 2006, 77, 211–220. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Haywood, J.M.; Bellouin, N.; Jones, A.; Boucher, O.; Wild, M.; Shine, K.P. The roles of aerosol, water vapor and cloud in future global dimming/brightening. J. Geophys. Res. 2011, 116, D20203. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Mitchell, D.L.; Finnegan, W. Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming. Environ. Res. Lett. 2009, 4, 045102. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wang, H.; Rasch, P.J.; Feingold, G. Manipulating marine stratocumulus cloud amount and albedo: A process-modelling study of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in response to injection of cloud condensation nuclei. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2011, 11, 4237–4249. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Zhao, T.X.-P.; Chan, P.K.; Heidinger, A.K. A global survey of the effect of cloud contamination on the aerosol optical thickness and its long-term trend derived from operational AVHRR satellite observations. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 2013, 118, 2849–2857. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Latham, J.; Bower, K.; Choularton, T.; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, G.; Craft, T.; Foster, J.; Gadian, A.; Galbraith, L.; et al. Marine cloud brightening. Philos. Trans. Ser. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 2012, 370, 4217–4262. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Lemley, B. A New Ice Age. Could Global Warming Trigger a Big Freeze? Discover Magazine, 22 May 2004. Available online: https://www.cbsd.org/cms/lib/PA01916442/Centricity/Domain/1622/Article%20E%20-%20A%20New%20Ice%20Age.pdf(accessed on 29 November 2021).
- NASA. A Chilling Possibility. In NASA Science; 2004. Available online: https://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2004/05mar_arctic (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Palter, J.B. The role of the Gulf Stream in European climate. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 2015, 7, 113–137. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Your Dictionary. Meanings. Online. Coriolis Effect. 2021. Available online: https://www.yourdictionary.com/coriolis-effect#science(accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Olsen, S.M.; Årthun, M.; Eldevik, E.; Fritz, J.S.; Larsen, K.M.; Miller, R.G.; Moat, B.; Oltmanns, M. The Slowing Gulf Stream? What We Know and Potential Impacts. In Blue-Action Policy Briefing; Zenodo: Genève, Switzerland, 2018. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Boers, N. Observation-based early-warning signals for a collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Nat. Clim. Chang. 2021, 11, 680–688. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Carrington, D. Climate Crisis: Scientists Spot Warning Signs of Gulf Stream Collapse. The Guardian, 5 August 2021. Available online: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2021/aug/05/climate-crisis-scientists-spot-warning-signs-of-gulf-stream-collapse(accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Robock, A. Volcanic eruptions and climate. Rev. Geophys. 2000, 38, 191–219. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Vernier, J.P.; Thomason, L.W.; Pommereau, J.P.; Bourassa, A.; Pelon, J.; Garnier, A.; Hauchecorne, A.; Blanot, L.; Trepte, C.; Degenstein, D.; et al. Major influence of tropical volcanic eruptions on the stratospheric aerosol layer during the last decade. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2011, 38, L12807. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Wikipedia. Volcanic Eruptions. 2021. Available online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_volcanic_eruptions (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Hansen, J.; Lacis, A.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M. Potential climate impact of Mount Pinatubo eruption. Geophys. Res. Lett. 1992, 19, 215–218. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bush, A. 1816: The Year without a Summer. The Beehive. Mass. Hist. Soc. 2020. Available online: https://www.masshist.org/beehiveblog/2016/11/1815-the-year-without-a-summer/ (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Klingaman, W.K.; Klingaman, N.P. The Year without Summer: 1816 and the Volcano That Darkened the World and Changed History; St. Martin’s Press: New York, NY, USA, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- UCAR. Mount Tambora and the Year without a Summer. Center for Science Education. 2012. Available online: https://scied.ucar.edu/learning-zone/how-climate-works/mount-tambora-and-year-without-summer (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Schmidt, H.; Alterskjær, K.; Bou Karam, D.; Boucher, O.; Jones, A.; Kristjánsson, J.E.; Niemeier, U.; Schulz, M.; Aaheim, A.; Benduhn, F.; et al. Solar irradiance reduction to counteract radiative forcing from a quadrupling of CO2: Climate responses simulated by four earth system models. Earth Syst. Dyn. 2012, 3, 63–78. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Hancock, L. Six Ways Loss of Arctic Ice Impacts Everyone. WWF Online. 2021. Available online: https://www.worldwildlife.org/pages/six-ways-loss-of-arctic-ice-impacts-everyone (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Chron. Arctic Defrosting: Melting of Polar Ice Pits Environmental Alarm against Desire to Exploit Newly Accessible Energy Sources. Hearst Newspapers, LLC, 8 September 2018. Available online: https://www.chron.com/opinion/outlook/article/Arctic-defrosting-Melting-of-polar-ice-pits-1551037.php(accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Brenna, L. Presena Glacier. Lifegate Online. 2020. Available online: https://www.lifegate.it/teli-salvare-ghiacciaio-presena-scioglimento (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- The Guardian. Covering Glacier in Italy. France-Presse, 21 June 2020. Available online: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jun/21/italian-team-covers-glacier-with-giant-white-sheets-to-slow-melting(accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Marshall, M. Planting Trees Doesn’t Always Help with Climate Change. BBC Future. 26 May 2020. Available online: https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20200521-planting-trees-doesnt-always-help-with-climate-change(accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Unger, N. To Save the Planet, Don’t Plant Trees. NY Times, 19 September 2014. Available online: https://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/20/opinion/to-save-the-planet-dont-plant-trees.html(accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Millington, A.; Blumler, M.; Schickhoff, U. (Eds.) The SAGE Handbook of Biogeography; Sage: Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Vaughan, N.E.; Lenton, N.E. A review of climate geoengineering proposals. Clim. Chang. 2011, 109, 745–790. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Popkin, G. How much can forests fight climate change? Nature 2019, 565, 280–282. Available online: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00122-z (accessed on 29 November 2021). [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Shi, T.; Han, G.; Ma, X.; Gong, W.; Chen, W.; Liu, J.; Zhang, X.; Pei, Z.; Gou, H.; Bu, L. Quantifying CO2 uptakes over oceans using LIDAR: A tentative experiment in Bohai bay. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2021, 48, e2020GL091160. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- EPA—United States Environmental Protection Agency. Climate Change and Harmful Algal Blooms. 2019. Available online: https://www.epa.gov/nutrientpollution/climate-change-and-harmful-algal-blooms (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Gray, A.; Krolikowski, M.; Fretwell, P.; Convey, P.; Peck, L.S.; Mendelova, M.; Smith, A.G.; Davey, M.P. Remote sensing reveals Antarctic green snow algae as important terrestrial carbon sink. Nat. Commun. 2020, 11, 1–9. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ortega, A.; Geraldi, N.R.; Alam, I.; Kamau, A.A.; Acinas, S.G.; Logares, R.; Gasol, J.M.; Massana, R.; Krause-Jensen, D.; Duarte, C.M. Important contribution of macroalgae to oceanic carbon sequestration. Nat. Geosci. 2019, 12, 748–754. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Koven, C.D.; Riley, W.J.; Stern, A. Analysis of permafrost thermal dynamics and response to climate change in the CMIP5 Earth System Models. J. Clim. 2013, 26, 1877–1900. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Romanovsky, V.E.; Drozdov, D.S.; Oberman, N.G.; Malkova, G.V.; Kholodov, A.L.; Marchenko, S.S.; Moskalenko, N.G.; Sergeev, D.O.; Ukraintseva, N.G.; Abramov, A.A.; et al. Thermal State of Permafrost in Russia. Permafr. Periglac. Processes 2010, 21, 136–155. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Schaefer, K.; Lantuit, H.; Romanovsky, V.E.; Schuur, E.A.; Witt, R. The impact of the permafrost carbon feedback on global climate. Environ. Res. Lett. 2014, 9, 085003. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Macdonald, F. Something’s Making Siberia’s Tundra Literally Bubble under People’s Feet. Science Alert, 27 July 2016. Available online: https://www.sciencealert.com/something-s-making-siberia-s-tundra-literally-bubble-under-people-s-feet(accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Mooney, C.; Arctic Cauldron. Arctic Lakes That Don’t Freeze. The Washington Post, 22 September 2018. Available online: https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2018/national/arctic-lakes-are-bubbling-and-hissing-with-dangerous-greenhouse-gases/(accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Tollefson, J. Satellite Spies Methane Bubbling Up from Arctic Permafrost. Scientific American, 14 December 2018. Available online: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/satellite-spies-methane-bubbling-up-from-arctic-permafrost/(accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Neumann, R.B.; Moorberg, C.J.; Lundquist, J.D.; Turner, J.C.; Waldrop, M.P.; McFarland, J.W.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Edgar, C.W.; Turetsky, M.R. Warming effects of spring rainfall increase methane emissions from thawing permafrost. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2019, 46, 1393–1401. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Siberian Times Reporter. Trembling tundra—The latest weird phenomenon in Siberia’s land of craters. The Siberian Times, 20 July 2016. Available online: http://siberiantimes.com/ecology/others/news/n0679-trembling-tundra-the-latest-weird-phenomenon-in-siberias-land-of-craters/(accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Gray, E. Unexpected Future Boost of Methane Possible from Arctic Permafrost. In NASA Earth Science; 20 August 2018. Available online: https://climate.nasa.gov/news/2785/unexpected-future-boost-of-methane-possible-from-arctic-permafrost/ (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Geiling, N. Stunning Bubbles Frozen Under Lake Abraham. SmIthsonian Magazine, 30 January 2014. Available online: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/lake-abrahams-frozen-bubbles-are-stunning-and-silent-danger-180949520/(accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Zakirov, A.; Alamy Stock Photo. Bubbles of Methane Gas Frozen into Clear Ice Lake Baikal, Russia. T8TX7A, 3 March 2018. Available online: https://www.alamy.com/bubbles-of-methane-gas-frozen-into-clear-ice-lake-baikal-russia-image246409838.html(accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Laughner, J.L.; Neu, J.L.; Schimel, D.; Wennberg, P.O.; Barsanti, K.; Bowman, K.W.; Chatterjee, A.; Croes, B.E.; Fitzmaurice, H.L.; Henze, D.K.; et al. Societal shifts due to COVID-19 reveal large-scale complexities and feedbacks between atmospheric chemistry and climate change. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2021, 118, e2109481118. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- WMO—World Meteorological Organization. The Global Framework for Climate Services: Work Plan 2019–2020. 2020. Available online: https://library.wmo.int/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=21524 (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- WCRP. World Climate Research Programme. Grand Challenge. Carbon Feedbacks in the Climate System. 2021. Available online: https://www.wcrp-climate.org/gc-carbon-feedbacks (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Mella, P. Systems Thinking: Intelligence in Action; Springer: New York, NY, USA, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Forrester, J.W. Counterintuitive behavior of social systems. Decis 1971, 2, 109–140. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Johnson-Laird, P.N. Mental Models: Towards a Cognitive Science of Language, Inference, and Consciousness; Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 1983. [Google Scholar]
- Gupta, J. Global Decision Making: Climate Change Politics, Chapter 9. In Climate Change: An Integrated Perspective; Martens, P., Rotmans, J., Eds.; Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Kuo, L.; Wang, X. Can China Recover from Its Disastrous One-Child Policy. The Guardian, 2 March 2019. Available online: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/mar/02/china-population-control-two-child-policy(accessed on 29 November 2021).
- von der Pütten, J.C. Moral Issues and Concerns about China’s One-Child Policy: A Cosmopolitan Perspective; GRIN: Norderstedt, Germany, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- Vollset, S.E.; Goren, E.; Yuan, C.W.; Cao, J.; Smith, A.E.; Hsiao, T.; Bisignano, C.; Azhar, G.S.; Castro, E.; Chalek, J.; et al. Fertility, mortality, migration, and population scenarios for 195 countries and territories from 2017 to 2100: A forecasting analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 2020, 396, 1285–1306. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- SEI, IISD, ODI, E3G, UNEP. Sockholm Environment Institute. The Production Gap Report. 2021. Available online: http://productiongap.org/2021report (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Chesterton, A. How Many Cars Are There in the World? Carsguide, Urbanguide. 2018. Available online: https://www.carsguide.com.au/car-advice/how-many-cars-are-there-in-the-world-70629 (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Wikipedia. Hydrogen Vehicle. 2021. Available online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_vehicle (accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Moghaddasi, H.; Culp, C.; Vanegas, J. Net Zero Energy Communities: Integrated Power System, Building and Transport Sectors. Energies 2021, 14, 7065. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Courea, E. Boris Johnson Tells Cop26: It’s Last Chance on Climate. The Times, 1 November 2021. Available online: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/cop26-pay-more-or-climate-plans-will-crumble-boris-johnson-tells-rich-nations-vzb0nnvhh(accessed on 29 November 2021).
- Senge, P.; Roberts, C.; Ross, R.; Smith, B.; Kleiner, A. The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook, Boubleday; Random House Inc.: New York, NY, USA, 1994. [Google Scholar]
- Sterman, J.D. Business Dynamics: Systems Thinking and Modeling for a Complex World; McGraw-Hill: New York, NY, USA, 2000. [Google Scholar]
- Sterman, J.D. System dynamics modeling: Tools for learning in a complex world. Calif. Manag. Rev. 2001, 43, 8–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Forrester, J.W. System Dynamics: The Foundation under Systems Thinking; Sloan School of Management: Cambridge, MA, USA, 1999; (revised 2010); Available online: http://clexchange.org/ftp/documents/system-dynamics/SD2011-01SDFoundationunderST.pdf (accessed on 29 November 2021).
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2022 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Mella, P. Global Warming: Is It (Im)Possible to Stop It? The Systems Thinking Approach. Energies 2022, 15, 705. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030705
Mella P. Global Warming: Is It (Im)Possible to Stop It? The Systems Thinking Approach. Energies. 2022; 15(3):705. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030705Chicago/Turabian Style
Mella, Piero. 2022. "Global Warming: Is It (Im)Possible to Stop It? The Systems Thinking Approach" Energies 15, no. 3: 705. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030705