This research aimed to introduce a comprehensive mathematical modeling approach based on the maximization of the power coefficient (Cp) to obtain the regulation in pitch angle and tip speed ratio (TSP), taking into account the detailed power losses at the different stages of the power train of the wind turbine. The model is used to track the optimal power coefficient of the wind turbine power train, considering both direct (without gearbox) and indirect (with gearbox) drive configurations. The result of the direct driveline was validated with a 100 W horizontal-axis wind turbine experimental system. The model estimated the optimal value of Cp at 0.48 for a pitch angle of 0 degrees and a TSR of 8.1, which could be obtained at a wind speed of around 11.2 m/s. The results also revealed that, within the lower wind regime, windage, hysteresis, and eddy current losses dominated, while during higher wind regimes, the copper, stray load, and insulator gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) losses gained high values. The developed model was applied to a 20 kW indirect drive wind turbine installed in Gwadar city in Pakistan. Compared with the direct coupling, the optimal value of Cp was obtained at a higher value of the pitch angle (1.7 degrees) and a lower value of TSR (around 6) due to the significant impact of the gear and copper losses in an indirect drivetrain.
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