The ambitious environmental goals set by the 2030 Climate Target Plan can be reached with a strong contribution coming from the residential sector and the exploitation of its flexibility, intended as the capacity of a building to shift its consumption to maximize the use of renewable energy. In the literature, the impact of flexibility has been mainly studied for the optimization of the control logic, assuming that the photovoltaic system and the electric storage have already been installed. Conversely, in this work, we adopt a different perspective that analyses the system from the designer point of view. Different scenarios with a variable degree of flexibility have been created and tested in a residential district considering various demand profiles (i.e., home appliances, heat pumps, and electric vehicles consumption). The profiles have been then used as input for an optimization tool that can design the optimal system according to a specific target function. Firstly, the system has been optimized according to economic indicators. However, results suggested that adopting only an economic perspective in the design phase could lead to results that are not in line with the European environmental targets. Thus, the system has been optimized also considering energy indicators to design a system that could give a relevant contribution to the energy transition of the residential sector. Results suggest that demand flexibility coupled with storage can boost the installation of photovoltaic systems due to the improved economic profitability and at the same time guarantee a relevant contribution to the decarbonization of the sector.
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