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A GaN-HEMT Compact Model Including Dynamic R_{DSon} Effect for Power Electronics Converters

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

- (1)
- This compact model is integrated into our developed Power Electronics Virtual Prototyping (PEVP) design tool, which takes consideration of electrical circuit EM analysis by PEEC method. In comparison with the above-discussed approaches, one advantage is that it is applied model order reduction (MOR) for PEEC method, which is able to reduce the numbers of equations for EM analysis so as to obtain device switching transients in the range of minutes. It helps designers to save simulation time as discussed above.
- (2)
- The compact model also includes device dynamic ${R}_{\mathsf{DSon}}$ values, which can be applied into different circuit simulators for power electronics converters. It helps designers to accurately obtain device losses in simulation as most GaN-HEMT model do not include dynamic ${R}_{\mathsf{DSon}}$ effect for power electronics converters.

## 2. GaN-HEMT Compact Model

#### 2.1. Model Principle

#### 2.2. Model Implementation into Power Electronics Virtual Prototyping Software

#### 2.3. Model Validation

## 3. GaN-HEMT Dynamic ${R}_{\mathsf{DSon}}$ Compact Model

#### 3.1. Model Principle and Parameters Extraction

#### 3.2. Model Implementation

#### 3.3. Model Validation

#### 3.3.1. Transient and Steady State

#### 3.3.2. Different Operation Conditions

#### 3.3.3. Discussion

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

GaN | Gallium Nitride |

HEMT | High Electron Mobility Transistors |

SiC | Silicon Carbide |

PFC | Power Factor Correction |

FEM | Finite Element Method |

PEEC | Partial Element Equivalent Circuit |

EM | Electromagnetic |

MOR | Model Order Reduction |

PEVP | Power Electronics Virtual Prototyping |

ZVS | Zero Voltage Soft Switching |

DUT | Device Under Test |

PCB | Printed Circuit Board |

DCM | GaN-HEMT Dynamic ${R}_{\mathsf{DSon}}$ Compact Model |

SCM | Standard GaN-HEMT Compact Model |

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**Figure 2.**Comparison between model and datasheet for device ${I}_{\mathsf{D}}$-${V}_{\mathsf{DS}}$ characteristics.

**Figure 3.**Comparison between the model and datasheet or experiment for device interelectrode capacitance values: (

**a**) ${C}_{\mathsf{iss}}$, ${C}_{\mathsf{oss}}$ and ${C}_{\mathsf{rss}}$ values. (

**b**) ${C}_{\mathsf{gs}}$-${V}_{\mathsf{GS}}$ value.

**Figure 5.**GaN-HEMT half-bridge circuit prototype and its models in PEVP: (

**a**) Prototype. (

**b**) Models in PEVP. (

**c**) Obtained ${L}_{\mathsf{para}}$ for power loop and gate loop.

**Figure 6.**Comparison between simulation and measurement for 200 V/4 A switching transients: (

**a**) Turn-ON. (

**b**) Turn-OFF.

**Figure 7.**Spectrum comparison between simulation and measurement for ${I}_{\mathsf{D}}$ and ${V}_{\mathsf{DS}}$ magnitude at 200 V/4 A: (

**a**) Turn-ON. (

**b**) Turn-OFF.

**Figure 9.**Measurement circuit and control signal: (

**a**) Electrical circuit. (

**b**) Control signals and load current.

**Figure 10.**Comparison between analytical model and measurement on GaN device dynamic ${R}_{\mathsf{DSon}}$ value under single pulse measurement: (

**a**) Under different ${t}_{\mathsf{off}}$. (

**b**) Under different ${t}_{\mathsf{off}}$ and ${t}_{\mathsf{on}}$.

**Figure 13.**Comparison between model and measurement for GaN device dynamic ${R}_{\mathsf{DSon}}$ value when device is switched at 100 kHz, D = 50%: (

**a**) Transient and steady state. (

**b**) At one switching cycle in steady state.

**Figure 14.**GaN-HEMT dynamic ${R}_{\mathsf{DSon}}$ measurement results by proposed TZCM when device switches at 1 MHz: (

**a**) ${R}_{\mathsf{DSon}}^{\mathsf{B}}$ and (

**b**) ${R}_{\mathsf{DSon}}^{\mathsf{E}}$.

**Figure 15.**GaN-HEMT dynamic ${R}_{\mathsf{DSon}}$ value of different operation conditions: (

**a**) different duty cycles (${f}_{\mathsf{sw}}=100$ kHz) and (

**b**) different switching frequencies (D = 50%).

**Table 1.**Parameters used in Equation (1).

a | b1 | b2 | c | d | e | f1 | f2 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1.1837 | 13 | 10.5 | 1.7 | 0.31 | 0.255 | 4.1 | 6.1 |

**Table 2.**Parameters used in Equation (2).

n | ${\mathit{a}}_{\mathit{n}}$ | ${\mathit{b}}_{\mathit{n}}$ | ${\mathit{c}}_{\mathit{n}}$ | ${\mathit{d}}_{\mathit{n}}$ | ${\mathit{e}}_{\mathit{n}}$ | ${\mathit{f}}_{\mathit{n}}$ | ${\mathit{g}}_{\mathit{n}}$ | ${\mathit{h}}_{\mathit{n}}$ | ${\mathit{i}}_{\mathit{n}}$ | ${\mathit{j}}_{\mathit{n}}$ |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 131.4$\xb7{10}^{-12}$ | 42.71$\xb7{10}^{-12}$ | −1.732 | −1.313 | 690$\xb7{10}^{-12}$ | 0.2736 | −2.689 | 668$\xb7{10}^{-12}$ | 0.2712 | −2.598 |

2 | 100$\xb7{10}^{-12}$ | 60.85$\xb7{10}^{-12}$ | 1.405 | 1.5 | 14.93$\xb7{10}^{-12}$ | 0.9169 | 5 | 3.933$\xb7{10}^{-12}$ | 0.07737 | −35 |

3 | 103.5$\xb7{10}^{-12}$ | 9.43$\xb7{10}^{-12}$ | 0.03019 | −118.9 | 11.49$\xb7{10}^{-12}$ | 0.7 | −47.34 | 20$\xb7{10}^{-12}$ | 0.06603 | −51.22 |

Simulation Software | ${\mathit{L}}_{\mathsf{gate}}$ | ${\mathit{L}}_{\mathsf{power}}$ | Simulation Time |
---|---|---|---|

PEVP | 9.7 nH | 5.4 nH | ∼0.7 min |

ADS | 9.6 nH | 5.7 nH | ∼100 min |

${\mathit{E}}_{\mathsf{sw},\mathsf{ON}}$ | ${\mathit{E}}_{\mathsf{sw},\mathsf{OFF}}$ | ${\mathit{E}}_{\mathsf{sw},\mathsf{tot}}$ | |
---|---|---|---|

Simulation | 3 $\mathsf{\mu}$J | 0.9 $\mathsf{\mu}$J | 3.9 $\mathsf{\mu}$J |

Measurement | 2.1 $\mathsf{\mu}$J | 0.7 $\mathsf{\mu}$J | 2.8 $\mathsf{\mu}$J |

$\mathsf{i}$ | ${\mathit{\tau}}_{{\mathsf{off}}_{\mathsf{i}}}$ (s) | ${\mathit{\tau}}_{{\mathsf{on}}_{\mathsf{i}}}$ (s) | ${\mathit{R}}_{\mathsf{i}}$ ($\Omega $) |
---|---|---|---|

1 | ${10}^{-6}$ | $5\times {10}^{-7}$ | 0.255 |

2 | 0.002 | $9.9\times {10}^{-6}$ | 0.21 |

3 | $5\times {10}^{-5}$ | 0.02 | 0.2185 |

4 | 0.198 | 2 | 0.2162 |

5 | 6.8 | 100 | 0.26 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Li, K.; Evans, P.L.; Johnson, C.M.; Videt, A.; Idir, N.
A GaN-HEMT Compact Model Including Dynamic *R*_{DSon} Effect for Power Electronics Converters. *Energies* **2021**, *14*, 2092.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082092

**AMA Style**

Li K, Evans PL, Johnson CM, Videt A, Idir N.
A GaN-HEMT Compact Model Including Dynamic *R*_{DSon} Effect for Power Electronics Converters. *Energies*. 2021; 14(8):2092.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082092

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Li, Ke, Paul Leonard Evans, Christopher Mark Johnson, Arnaud Videt, and Nadir Idir.
2021. "A GaN-HEMT Compact Model Including Dynamic *R*_{DSon} Effect for Power Electronics Converters" *Energies* 14, no. 8: 2092.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082092