Minimum Leading Edge Protection Application Length to Combat Rain-Induced Erosion of Wind Turbine Blades
1.3. Scope and Novelty of The Current Work
2. Analysis Procedure
3. Methodology and Details of the Parametric Study
3.1.1. Probabilistic Rainfall Model
|Type of Rainfall||Range of Intensity (mm/h)|
|Dry period||No I recorded|
|Light rainfall (P1)|
|Moderate rainfall (P2)|
|Heavy rainfall (P3)|
|Very heavy/violent rainfall (P4)|
3.1.2. Wind Statistical Model
3.1.3. Wind Turbine Model
3.1.4. Coating Erosion Model
3.1.5. Long-Term Erosion Model
3.2. Parametric Case Studies
4. Experiments: Validation of Springer’s Surface Fatigue Model
4.1. Experimental Procedure
4.2. Validation Methodology
5. Results and Discussion
5.1. Probabilistic Rain Model
5.2. Wind Statistics Model
5.3. Determination of Leading Edge Lifetime and LEP Application Length
- It was found in the study that for any given WT, the LEL is found to be the lowest at the blade tip, and this value increases rapidly from the tip towards the inner region of the blade in a non-linear fashion. A parameter () was defined that refers to the limiting point along the blade length below which there are no erosion damages expected during the blade’s service life. This parameter calculates the expected eroded blade length, as well as the LEP applications required for the WTB. For the coastal sites, it was found that this parameter is smallest for the 15 MW WT, larger for the 10 MW WT, and even larger for the 2.1 MW WT. However, for the sites further inland, for the 10 MW WT becomes larger than that for the 2.1 MW WT.
- The total eroded blade length during the service life due to precipitation was found to be the highest for the 15 MW WT (which ranges between the blade’s radial position 75 m 117 m for all sites) followed by the 10 MW WT (which ranges between 62 m 86.4 m for all sites) and the 2.1 MW WT (which ranges between 33 m 44 m for all sites). Furthermore, the total eroded blade length was found to be the highest for the coastal sites compared to the inland sites.
- An experimental investigation was performed to validate Springer’s surface fatigue model for describing the coating incubation time at lab scale. The droplet erosion test results were compared with Springer’s analytical surface fatigue line, which were found to have a close agreement.
- It was found in the study that for a given site, the LEP application length requirement increases with increasing power ratings of the WT. For instance, the LEP application length requirements are in the range of 8–11 m for the 2.1 MW blade, 9–25 m for the 10 MW blade, and 27–42 m for the IEA 15 MW turbine. Furthermore, for any given WT, the LEP application length requirement was found to be the highest for the coastal sites and reduced with sites located more inland.
- It was found in the study that the LEP application length has the strongest relationship with the hub height, followed by blade length, the power rating of the wind turbine, and finally, with the blade tip speed. A linear regression model was developed to establish the linear equations describing the line of best fit between the LEP application length and turbine-specific parameters. These equations will aid the industry to choose a suitable range of in-factory LEP application lengths, especially for those combinations of turbine parameters for which the analysis was not considered in this paper.
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Station Number||Site Name||Longitude (East)||Latitude (North)||Altitude (m)|
|Turbine Specs||2.1 MW||DTU 10 MW||IEA 15 MW|
|Blade length||44 m||86.4 m||117 m|
|Hub height||80 m||119 m||150 m|
|Max. tip speed||75 m/s||90 m/s||95 m/s|
|Cut-in wind speed||4 m/s||4 m/s||3 m/s|
|Rated wind speed||14 m/s||11.4 m/s||10.59 m/s|
|Cut-off wind speed||25 m/s||25 m/s||25 m/s|
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Verma, A.S.; Noi, S.D.; Ren, Z.; Jiang, Z.; Teuwen, J.J.E. Minimum Leading Edge Protection Application Length to Combat Rain-Induced Erosion of Wind Turbine Blades. Energies 2021, 14, 1629. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14061629
Verma AS, Noi SD, Ren Z, Jiang Z, Teuwen JJE. Minimum Leading Edge Protection Application Length to Combat Rain-Induced Erosion of Wind Turbine Blades. Energies. 2021; 14(6):1629. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14061629Chicago/Turabian Style
Verma, Amrit Shankar, Sandro Di Noi, Zhengru Ren, Zhiyu Jiang, and Julie J. E. Teuwen. 2021. "Minimum Leading Edge Protection Application Length to Combat Rain-Induced Erosion of Wind Turbine Blades" Energies 14, no. 6: 1629. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14061629