A Comparative Analysis of Energy Consumption by Conventional and Anchor Based Dynamic Positioning of Ship
Abstract
:1. Introduction
 The place of the test –> in this case it is the UPS switchboard,
 Determination what the test concerns –> 230 V UPS power rail,
 A section specifying the expected impact of a power failure on devices connected to the particular power rail, e.g., specifying that in the event of a power failure to the joystick system, no impact on the dynamic positioning system is expected.
 –
 wind speed,
 –
 the power of thrusters needed to cancel out the influence of the wind.
 The capability plot analysis.
 Based on the results of the analysis from point 1, the dependencies of the strength of individual thrusters on the wind speed were determined
 Using the dependencies given in [29], the individual thrusters’ forces were converted into power.
 The dependencies of the used thruster power on the wind speed were determined,
 Based on the characteristics from subpoint 4 and the graph of changes in wind speed during positioning, the power consumption over time was determined.
 Knowing the changes in power consumption and the positioning time, it was possible to determine the energy consumption.
2. Review of Existing Methods of Reducing Energy Consumption
 Methods related to control algorithms,
 Methods related to the structure of the ship
 Methods related to analysis during ship design process
2.1. Methods Related to Control Algorithms
2.2. Methods Related to the Structure of the Ship
2.3. Methods Related to Analysis during Ship Design Process
3. Research Methodology
3.1. Mathematical Model of Environmental Forces
 Wind force and resulting torque
 The strength of the sea current and the resulting torque
3.1.1. Wind Force and Torque
3.1.2. Sea Current and Torque
3.2. Mathematical Model of Thrusters
3.2.1. Tunnel Thruster
3.2.2. Azimuth Thruster
3.2.3. Main Screw
3.3. Determination of the Distribution of Forces on Propulsors
4. Simulation Studies of Energy Consumption in Various DP Systems
4.1. Conventional Dynamic Positioning System
4.2. Positioning System with a Set of Anchors
4.3. Comparison of Positioning Systems
5. Conclusions
Author Contributions
Funding
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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C1—230V UPS Distribution Board Instrument Room  

Source: Main—230V UPS 1 Backup—230V MSB Bus A (Automatic Changeover)  
Ref.  Description  Notification  Primary Effect  Effect on DP 
C1 1–14  No DP related consumers  Loss of power supply  Not DP Related  No effect on position keeping capability. 
C1 14  AC/DC Converter  Loss of power supply  Not DP Related  No effect on position keeping capability. 
C1 15  IAS Servers  Loss of backup power to IAS servers, one on bridge and one in ECR  Servers remain operational on power from UPS No. 2 and 3  No effect on position keeping capability. 
C1 16–17  No DP related consumers  Loss of power supply  Not DP Related  No effect on position keeping capability. 
C1 18  Independent Joystick system  Loss of power supply  Loss of independent joystick system  No effect on position keeping capability. Loss of backup system. 
C1 19  Loss of supply or Short Circuit  All of Above  All of Above  All of Above, 
Parameter  Value 

Length overall (LOA) [m]:  90 
Length between perpendiculars (LPP) [m]:  70 
Breadth [m]:  22 
Draught [m]:  5 
Displacement [T]:  6400 
Distance between foremost and aft most point of the hull below the surface at design draft even keel [m]:  82.8 
Water plane area [m^{2}]:  1390 
Projected longitudinal area above water [m^{2}]:  900 
Surge position of geometric center of the projected longitudinal area above water with respect to LPP/2 [m]:  12.5 
Projected longitudinal area below water [m^{2}]:  420 
Surge position of geometric center of the projected longitudinal area below water with respect to LPP/2 [m]:  5.5 
Surge position of water line center with respect to LPP/2 [m]:  −0.35 
Projected transverse area above water [m^{2}]:  430 
Projected transverse area below water [m^{2}]:  140 
Generator  Power [kW]  Connected to Switchboard 

Generator 1  1500  1 
Generator 2  1500  2 
Generator 3  2000  1 
Generator 4  2000  2 
Thruster  Thrust Max [kN]  Thrust Min [kN]  Power [kW]  X [m]  Y [m] 

T1  118  −118  588  33.4  0 
T2  118  −118  588  29.8  0 
AT1  90  −90  588  26.6  0 
A1  400  −246  2000  −38.8  5 
A2  400  −246  2000  −38.8  −5 
Thruster  Switchboard 1  Switchboard 2 

T1  100%  0% 
T2  0%  100% 
AT1  50%  50% 
A1  0%  100% 
A2  100%  0% 
Parameter  Value 

Length overall (LOA) [m]:  72.7 
Length between perpendiculars (LPP) [m]:  64 
Breadth [m]:  11.6 
Draught [m]:  3.4 
Displacement [T]:  1886 
Distance between foremost and aft most point of the hull below the surface at design draft even keel [m]:  67.1 
Water plane area [m^{2}]:  639 
Projected longitudinal area above water [m^{2}]:  437 
Surge position of geometric center of the projected longitudinal area above water with respect to LPP/2 [m]:  0.1 
Projected longitudinal area below water [m^{2}]:  223 
Surge position of geometric center of the projected longitudinal area below water with respect to LPP/2 [m]:  −2.9 
Surge position of water line center with respect to LPP/2 [m]:  −1.5 
Projected transverse area above water [m^{2}]:  140 
Projected transverse area below water [m^{2}]:  36 
Thruster  Thrust Max [kN]  Thrust Min [kN]  Power [kW] 

Tunnel 1  24  −24  250 
Tunnel 2  24  −24  250 
Port propeller  181  −181  2000 
Stbd propeller  181  −181  2000 
Winch  Max Tension [kN] (500 m Chain)  Max Tension [kN] (750 m Chain)  Max Tension [kN] (1000 m Chain) 

Port Winch 1  102.53  116.47  124.85 
Stbd Winch 1  102.53  116.47  124.85 
Port Winch 2  102.53  116.47  124.85 
Stbd Winch 2  102.53  116.47  124.85 
Conventional DP System  Anchor System  

Advantages 


Disadvantages 


Average hourly energy consumption (for 10 h of positioning)  1825.7 [kWh]  1390 [kWh] 
Fuel consumption  4258 [l]  3241.6 [l] 
$C{{O}_{2}}_{emission}$  11.24 [t]  8.56 [t] 
Application 


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Łebkowski, A.; Wnorowski, J. A Comparative Analysis of Energy Consumption by Conventional and Anchor Based Dynamic Positioning of Ship. Energies 2021, 14, 524. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030524
Łebkowski A, Wnorowski J. A Comparative Analysis of Energy Consumption by Conventional and Anchor Based Dynamic Positioning of Ship. Energies. 2021; 14(3):524. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030524
Chicago/Turabian StyleŁebkowski, Andrzej, and Jakub Wnorowski. 2021. "A Comparative Analysis of Energy Consumption by Conventional and Anchor Based Dynamic Positioning of Ship" Energies 14, no. 3: 524. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030524