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Article

Inter-Comparison of Particle and Gaseous Pollutant Emissions of a Euro 4 Motorcycle at Two Laboratories

1
BOSMAL Automotive R&D Institute Ltd., 43300 Bielsko-Biala, Poland
2
Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission, 21027 Ispra, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Constantine D. Rakopoulos and Andrzej Teodorczyk
Energies 2021, 14(23), 8101; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14238101
Received: 10 August 2021 / Revised: 11 October 2021 / Accepted: 2 December 2021 / Published: 3 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Electric Vehicles and Engine Emissions)
The Euro 4 regulation, applicable since 2016 for L-category vehicles (i.e., two and three-wheelers, and mini cars) reduced the emission limits, but also introduced a new cycle, the WMTC (World Harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle). The emission studies of Euro 4 motorcycles are limited, and most importantly there are no published studies comparing the results of different laboratories applying the new cycle. In this study we compared the particle and gaseous pollutants of one Euro 4 motorcycle measured in two laboratories in 2017 and 2020. The gaseous pollutant results had a variance (one standard deviation of the means) of 0.5% for CO2, 4–19% for CO, NOx, HC (hydrocarbons) and SPN (Solid Particle Number). The particulate matter mass results had higher variance of 50–60%. Additional tests with open configuration to mimic dilution at the tailpipe gave equivalent results to the closed configuration for the gaseous pollutants and SPN. The total particles (including volatiles) had significant differences between the two configurations, with the closed configuration giving higher results. The main conclusion of this study is that the new procedures have very good reproducibility, even for the SPN that is not regulated for L-category vehicles. However, the measurement of total particles needs attention due to the high sensitivity of volatile particles to the sampling conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; vehicle emissions; L-category; inter-laboratory comparison; particulate matter (PM); particle number; catalytic stripper air pollution; vehicle emissions; L-category; inter-laboratory comparison; particulate matter (PM); particle number; catalytic stripper
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bielaczyc, P.; Honkisz, W.; Woodburn, J.; Szczotka, A.; Forloni, F.; Lesueur, D.; Giechaskiel, B. Inter-Comparison of Particle and Gaseous Pollutant Emissions of a Euro 4 Motorcycle at Two Laboratories. Energies 2021, 14, 8101. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14238101

AMA Style

Bielaczyc P, Honkisz W, Woodburn J, Szczotka A, Forloni F, Lesueur D, Giechaskiel B. Inter-Comparison of Particle and Gaseous Pollutant Emissions of a Euro 4 Motorcycle at Two Laboratories. Energies. 2021; 14(23):8101. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14238101

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bielaczyc, Piotr, Wojciech Honkisz, Joseph Woodburn, Andrzej Szczotka, Fabrizio Forloni, Dominique Lesueur, and Barouch Giechaskiel. 2021. "Inter-Comparison of Particle and Gaseous Pollutant Emissions of a Euro 4 Motorcycle at Two Laboratories" Energies 14, no. 23: 8101. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14238101

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