The energy transition currently taking place in the mining regions of the European Union poses many challenges that need to be addressed with a view to 2030 and 2050, of which the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is the key one. Initial results of the research project entitled “Models of a transition to a climate-neutral, circular economy for mining regions under transformation process”, which is developed in parallel with the transition of mining town Brzeszcze, are presented. The challenges, in the context of energy transition, for both the EU and local governments were identified on the basis of EU policies and the experience of the project team from the cooperation with the commune of Brzeszcze. A “research by design” method was used to develop model solutions. In the context of local challenges, there was a discussion of the Green Deal objectives and “greenery” as a tool for transformation and achieving well-being. It was concluded that a comparison of the tangible (mining and social infrastructure) and intangible (privileges) well-being provided by a “carbon-based” economy with the new “well-being” weights in favour of the new. This is reflected in the concerns of mine workers and the citizens as well. Therefore, proposing appropriate revitalization of a post-mining site will be one of the challenges. With regard to the revitalization, a discussion was held on the role of mining heritage which can trigger either a “growth machine” or a “decline machine” depending on the decisions taken, compatible or not with a circular economy.
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