Positive Energy Building Definition with the Framework, Elements and Challenges of the Concept
1.1. Building Sector’s Contribution to Decarbonisation Goals
1.2. Other Benefits and Effects of PEB
1.3. PEB—An Emerging Concept
2. Terminology and Elements of the PEB Definition
2.1.1. Physical Boundary of a Building
2.1.2. Balancing Boundary of the Building and Demand
2.2. Exchange with Energy Grids and Naming of Energy Components
2.2.1. The Availability of Energy Grid
2.2.2. Naming of Energy Components
2.3. Additional Aspects for PEB Concept
- The economic and user-centric perspectives are usually not the main part of the NZEB and NetZEB definition .
- The other energy demands of the buildings, for instance for common spaces, elevators, heat recovery, parking lot, or plug loads may not be considered in the calculation of the energy demand of the building .
- The NZEB concept does not often take into account the EV integration, although it may have an impact on the final energy demand of the building .
- The positive energy balance is not the requirement of the NZEB, although it can affect the grid and contribute to the reduction of emissions in the grid .
- Energy storage use on-site to improve self-sufficiency is usually not part of the NZEB concept .
3. Technical Approach to PEB
3.1. The PEB Concept
3.1.1. Energy Efficiency in Positive Energy Buildings
3.1.2. Energy Supply from Renewable Sources
3.2. Energy Balance in PEB
3.3. Energy Matching and Grid Interaction
3.4. Flexibility of the Building as Support to the Energy Grid
3.5. The Function, Space Use, and Usage Schedules in a Building
3.6. Mobility and Electrical Vehicles in Relation to PEBs
4. Human and Society Centric Approach to PEB
4.1. Indoor Environment Quality
4.2. User Engagement
4.3. Life Cycle Emission Considerations in PEB
4.4. Economic Considerations in PEB
5. Positive Energy Building Definition
- The EXCESS project considers mainly residential buildings, butlooks also at the role of the building in a bigger context, especially through impact to the energy networks. When assessing the building, the energy needs for other than residential activities, e.g., commercial or public services are excluded, but the energy use for the shared spaces is included.
- The local generation includes the energy produced at the building lot, with technologies that are placed in/on the building or building site, as well as technologies incorporated within the building elements.
- The energy need components considered are electricity, heating and cooling. Heating includes both space and water heating. Electricity covers the lighting, plug loads, ventilation, and the electricity demands for the shared spaces such as the lighting in common zones and elevators.
- For renewables, the definition of renewable energy from the European RES (renewable energy sources) directive is adopted, which defines it as “energy from renewable non-fossil sources”, e.g., wind, solar, hydro, geothermal, or biomass .
- High self-consumption rate helps in minimizing both the emissions and the negative impacts to the grid. Demand response and energy storage solutions can be used as ways to increase the self-consumption rate.
- Indoor environment considers the elements of thermal, visual, and acoustic environment and indoor air quality.
- The life-cycle effects on costs and emissions should be taken into account in the planning and analysis of PEB.
6.1. Primary Energy as Indicator
6.2. Different Ways to Categorise Positive Energy Buildings
- Autonomous PEB: A self-sufficient building, in which all energy demand, supply, and storage components are within a defined building boundary. All the demand is covered by on-site renewables. Energy is not imported from the external grid, but excess energy can be exported to the grid.
- Dynamic PEB: A building with a higher onsite renewable energy supply than the demand within the defined building boundary. A building is interacting with the grid and other buildings outside the boundary.
- Virtual PEB: A building with virtual or no specific fixed boundary. The renewable energy sources and storage can be located outside the geographical building boundary. The onsite renewable energy and virtual generation sources should have a higher combined supply than the energy demand of the building.
6.3. PEB as Energy Community
6.4. The Integration of EVs and Other Vehicles
6.5. PEB in Relation to Smart Readiness Indicator (SRI)
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Ala-Juusela, M.; Rehman, H.u.; Hukkalainen, M.; Reda, F. Positive Energy Building Definition with the Framework, Elements and Challenges of the Concept. Energies 2021, 14, 6260. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196260
Ala-Juusela M, Rehman Hu, Hukkalainen M, Reda F. Positive Energy Building Definition with the Framework, Elements and Challenges of the Concept. Energies. 2021; 14(19):6260. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196260Chicago/Turabian Style
Ala-Juusela, Mia, Hassam ur Rehman, Mari Hukkalainen, and Francesco Reda. 2021. "Positive Energy Building Definition with the Framework, Elements and Challenges of the Concept" Energies 14, no. 19: 6260. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196260