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Article

Coconut Shell-Derived Activated Carbon for High-Performance Solid-State Supercapacitors

1
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Jalan Broga 43500, Malaysia
2
Green Energy Technology Research Center and Department of Materials Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan 710, Taiwan
3
Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Worapon Kiatkittipong and Jun-Wei Lim
Energies 2021, 14(15), 4546; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154546
Received: 26 June 2021 / Revised: 19 July 2021 / Accepted: 23 July 2021 / Published: 27 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Unidisciplinary to Multidisciplinary Energy Research)
Coconut shells, low-cost and renewable agro-wastes, were used as a starting material in the synthesis of hierarchical activated carbons via hydrothermal, KOH-activation, and carbonization techniques. The ratio of KOH to hydrochar was varied in a systemic manner to study how it influences the texture and electrochemical behavior of the capacitor. Coconut shell-based carbon coated on nickel foams presented a surface area of 1567 m2 g−1, with micropores as well as mesopores widely distributed. The sample showed superior electrochemical performance, attaining 449 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 in 6 M LiNO3 aqueous solution. The solid-state symmetric supercapacitor device delivered a specific capacitance of 88 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 and a high energy density of 48.9 Whkg−1 at a power density of 1 kW kg−1. At a wide voltage window of 2.0 V, the sample was highly stable during the cycle test, showing a 92% capacitance retention at 2 A g−1 after cycling for 5000 times. The superior performance is due to the sample possessing great BET surface area, a good distribution of pores, and the usage of a suitable electrolyte. This facilitates an electrical double layer that can be deployed for applications to store energy. View Full-Text
Keywords: coconut shell; activated carbon; hydrothermal synthesis; solid state supercapacitor coconut shell; activated carbon; hydrothermal synthesis; solid state supercapacitor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, K.-C.; Lim, M.S.W.; Hong, Z.-Y.; Chong, S.; Tiong, T.J.; Pan, G.-T.; Huang, C.-M. Coconut Shell-Derived Activated Carbon for High-Performance Solid-State Supercapacitors. Energies 2021, 14, 4546. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154546

AMA Style

Lee K-C, Lim MSW, Hong Z-Y, Chong S, Tiong TJ, Pan G-T, Huang C-M. Coconut Shell-Derived Activated Carbon for High-Performance Solid-State Supercapacitors. Energies. 2021; 14(15):4546. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154546

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Kuan-Ching, Mitchell S.W. Lim, Zhong-Yun Hong, Siewhui Chong, Timm J. Tiong, Guan-Ting Pan, and Chao-Ming Huang. 2021. "Coconut Shell-Derived Activated Carbon for High-Performance Solid-State Supercapacitors" Energies 14, no. 15: 4546. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154546

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