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Open AccessArticle

Optimal Location of Fast Charging Stations for Mixed Traffic of Electric Vehicles and Gasoline Vehicles Subject to Elastic Demands

by 1, 1,*, 1 and 2
1
School of Transportation and Logistics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
2
China Academy of Transportation Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(8), 1964; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13081964
Received: 23 March 2020 / Revised: 13 April 2020 / Accepted: 14 April 2020 / Published: 16 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Systems for Transportation)
With the rapid development of electric vehicles (EVs), one of the urgent issues is how to deploy limited charging facilities to provide services for as many EVs as possible. This paper proposes a bilevel model to depict the interaction between traffic flow distribution and the location of charging stations (CSs) in the EVs and gasoline vehicles (GVs) hybrid network. The upper level model is a maximum flow-covering model where the CSs are deployed on links with higher demands. The lower level model is a stochastic user equilibrium model under elastic demands (SUE-ED) that considers both demands uncertainty and perceived path constraints, which have a significant influence on the distribution of link flow. Besides the path travel cost, the utility of charging facilities, charging speed, and waiting time at CSs due to space capacity restraint are also considered for the EVs when making a path assignment in the lower level model. A mixed-integer nonlinear program is constructed, and the equivalence of SUE-ED is proven, where a heuristic algorithm is used to solve the model. Finally, the network trial and sensitivity analysis are carried out to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicles; public charging station; bilevel model; range constraint electric vehicles; public charging station; bilevel model; range constraint
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gao, H.; Liu, K.; Peng, X.; Li, C. Optimal Location of Fast Charging Stations for Mixed Traffic of Electric Vehicles and Gasoline Vehicles Subject to Elastic Demands. Energies 2020, 13, 1964. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13081964

AMA Style

Gao H, Liu K, Peng X, Li C. Optimal Location of Fast Charging Stations for Mixed Traffic of Electric Vehicles and Gasoline Vehicles Subject to Elastic Demands. Energies. 2020; 13(8):1964. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13081964

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gao, Hong; Liu, Kai; Peng, Xinchao; Li, Cheng. 2020. "Optimal Location of Fast Charging Stations for Mixed Traffic of Electric Vehicles and Gasoline Vehicles Subject to Elastic Demands" Energies 13, no. 8: 1964. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13081964

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