# A Study on an Improved Three-Winding Coupled Inductor Based DC/DC Boost Converter with Continuous Input Current

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Operation Principles of the Proposed Converter

_{L}). In this mode, the passive clamp circuit is active, and the voltage stress of the power switch is limited to V

_{C}

_{2}. This time interval is also very short, and it ends once the current of the third winding of the coupled inductor reverses and the diode D2 is turned OFF.

_{L}) equals with the current of the second winding of the coupled inductor. Thus, the diode D1 is switched OFF. In this mode, the capacitors C1 and C3 are discharged and the capacitors C2 and C

_{O}are charged. This mode ends when the switching period finishes, and the power switch is turned ON again in the following switching cycle.

_{2}can be calculated.

_{2}) is subtracted from the primary side of the coupled inductor. In addition, the secondary side of the coupled inductor is increased by the proper connection of the windings N

_{1}and N

_{3}. This unique feature increases the voltage gain of the presented converter. The voltage gain of the converter is depicted in Figure 5. In this figure, the voltage gain is illustrated for the different values of N

_{2}/N

_{1}and N

_{3}/N

_{1}turn ratios.

## 3. Converter Design Considerations

_{m}can be expressed as follows.

_{O}), and applying the ampere-second balance principle, the following can be deduced that:

_{m}, the BCM (Boundary Conduction Mode) should be discussed. At the end of the switching period in BCM mode, the diode D3 will be turned OFF. In other words, at the end of the switching period, the i

_{L}= –i

_{Lk}. Therefore, the following equations can be derived:

_{4}) can be calculated considering that the average current of all the diodes are equal to the output current.

_{4}can be derived as below.

## 4. Loss Analysis of Proposed Converter

_{D}) can be calculated in below:

_{F}) also causes some power losses. As the average currents of all diodes are I

_{O}, the power losses can be calculated as follows:

_{S}is the switching frequency and Cs is the parasitic capacitance of the main power switch (MOSFET). Therefore, the overall power loss of the power switch can be calculated as below:

_{CI}is the total equivalent resistance of the coupled inductor.

## 5. Comparisons

## 6. Experimental Results

_{3}/N

_{1}= 2, N

_{2}/N

_{1}= 0.4. In Figure 9a, the voltages of the capacitors are shown. It is important to note that the duty ratio is 65 percent. The voltage of the capacitor C1, C2, C3, and C

_{O}are approximately 51, 76, 114.5, and 400 V, respectively. The obtained result validates the steady-state analysis of the presented converter. In Figure 9b, the voltage stress across the power switch and diode D1 are shown. When the power switch is turned OFF, the active clamp circuit becomes active and limits the maximum reverse voltage on the switch to the voltage of the capacitor C

_{2}. Therefore, as it is depicted in the figure, the voltage stress on the main switch and the diode D1 are 76 V. In Figure 9c, the voltage stress of the diode D3 is shown. As it can be seen, the voltage stress is about 350 V.

_{k}are shown in Figure 9e. As it is shown, the inductor current i

_{L}fluctuates between 9.8 and 11.4 A. This shows the continuous input current characteristic of the presented converter. This current is drawn from the input power source, which is very favorable for renewable energy applications. Furthermore, the current waveform of the L

_{k}is in accordance with the analysis in Figure 3. The current waveform of the diode D2 is also shown in Figure 9f. As it is shown, the current reaches its peak value at 1.58 A.

## 7. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

- Farakhor, A.; Abapour, M.; Sabahi, M. Study on the derivation of the continuous input current high-voltage gain DC/DC converters. IET Power Electron.
**2018**, 11, 1652–1660. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Chen, Y.; Zhang, B.; Qiu, D.; Xie, F. High Step-Up DC-DC Converter with Active Switched LC-Network for Photovoltaic Systems. IEEE Trans. Energy Convers.
**2019**, 34, 321–329. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Kazimierczuk, M.K. Pulse-Width Modulated DC-DC Power Converters; John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Kuperman, A.; Aharon, I.; Malki, S.; Kara, A. Design of a semiactive battery-ultracapacitor hybrid energy source. IEEE Trans. Power Electron.
**2013**, 28, 806–815. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Li, R.; Shi, F. Control and Optimization of Residential Photovoltaic Power Generation System with High Efficiency Isolated Bidirectional DC–DC Converter. IEEE Access
**2019**, 7, 116107–116122. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Banaei, M.R.; Ardi, H.; Alizadeh, R.; Farakhor, A. Non-isolated multi-input–single-output DC/DC converter for photovoltaic power generation systems. IET Power Electron.
**2014**, 7, 2806–2816. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Zhu, B.; Zeng, Q.; Chen, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Liu, S. A Dual-Input High Step-Up DC/DC Converter with ZVT Auxiliary Circuit. IEEE Trans. Energy Convers.
**2019**, 34, 161–169. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Bin, W.; Shouxiang, L.; Yao, L.; Smedley, K.M. A New Hybrid Boosting Converter for Renewable Energy Applications. Power Electron. IEEE Trans.
**2016**, 31, 1203–1215. [Google Scholar] - Gang, W.; Xinbo, R.; Zhihong, Y. Nonisolated High Step-Up DC-DC Converters Adopting Switched-Capacitor Cell. Ind. Electron. IEEE Trans.
**2015**, 62, 383–393. [Google Scholar] - Wu, X.; Shi, W.; Du, J. Dual-Switch Boost DC–DC Converter for Use in Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicles. IEEE Access.
**2019**, 7, 74081–74088. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Ardi, H.; Ajami, A.; Sabahi, M. A Novel High Step-up DC-DC converter with Continuous Input Current Integrating Coupled Inductor for Renewable Energy Application. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.
**2017**, 65, 1306–1315. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Baddipadiga, B.P.; Ferdowsi, M. A high-voltage-gain dc-dc converter based on modified dickson charge pump voltage multiplier. IEEE Trans. Power Electron.
**2017**, 32, 7707–7715. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Yang, L.S.; Liang, T.J. Analysis and Implementation of a Novel Bidirectional DC–DC Converter. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.
**2012**, 59, 422–434. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Nathan, K.S.; Ghosh, S.; Siwakoti, Y.P.; Long, T. A New DC-DC Converter for Photovoltaic Systems: Coupled-Inductors Combined Cuk-SEPIC Converter. IEEE Trans. Energy Convers.
**2019**, 34, 191–201. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Siwakoti, Y.P.; Blaabjerg, F.; Loh, P.C. High Step-Up Trans-Inverse (Tx− 1) DC–DC Converter for the Distributed Generation System. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.
**2016**, 63, 4278–4291. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Gummi, K.; Ferdowsi, M. Double-Input DC-DC Power Electronic Converters for Electrical-Drive Vehicles- Topology Exploration and Synthesis Using a Single-Pole Triple-Throw Switch. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.
**2010**, 57, 617–621. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Zeng, T.; Wu, Z.; He, L. An Interleaved Soft Switching High Step-Up Converter with Low Input Current Ripple and High Efficiency. IEEE Access.
**2019**, 7, 93580–93593. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Gules, R.; dos Santos, W.M.; dos Reis, F.A. A Modified SEPIC Converter with High Static Gain for Renewable Applications. IEEE Trans. Power Electron.
**2014**, 29, 5860–5871. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Ajami, A.; Ardi, H.; Farakhor, A. A Novel High Step-up DC/DC Converter Based on Integrating Coupled Inductor and Switched-Capacitor Techniques for Renewable Energy Applications. IEEE Trans. Power Electron.
**2015**, 30, 4255–4263. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Axelrod, B.; Beck, Y.; Berkovich, Y. High step-up DC–DC converter based on the switched-coupled-inductor boost converter and diode-capacitor multiplier: Steady state and dynamics. IET Power Electron.
**2015**, 8, 1420–1428. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Tseng, K.C.; Lin, J.T.; Huang, C.C. High Step-Up Converter with Three-Winding Coupled Inductor for Fuel Cell Energy Source Applications. IEEE Trans. Power. Electron.
**2015**, 30, 574–581. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Qian, Z.; Abdel-Rahman, O.; Al-Atrash, H.; Batarseh, I. Modeling and control of three-port DC/DC converter interface for satellite applications. IEEE Trans. Power Electron.
**2009**, 25, 637–649. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Erickson, R.W.; Maksimovic, D. Fundamentals of Power Electronics, 2nd ed.; Kluwer: Norwell, Massachusetts, UK, 2001. [Google Scholar]
- Ioinovici, A. Power Electronics and Energy Conversion Systems; Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2013; Volume 1. [Google Scholar]
- Siwakoti, Y.P.; Loh, P.C.; Blaabjerg, F.; Andreasen, S.J.; Graham, E.; Town, G.E. Y-source boost dc/dc converter for distributed generation. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.
**2015**, 62, 1059–1069. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Siwakoti, Y.P.; Loh, P.C.; Blaabjerg, F.; Graham, E.; Town, G.E. Magnetically coupled high-gain Y-source isolated DC/DC converter. IET Power Electron.
**2014**, 7, 2817–2824. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Li, F.; Yao, Y.; Wang, Z.; Liu, H. Coupled-inductor-inverse high step-up converter. IET Power Electron.
**2018**, 11, 902–991. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Moradpour, R.; Ardi, H.; Tavakoli, A. Design and Implementation of a New SEPIC-Based High Step-Up DC/DC Converter for Renewable Energy Applications. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.
**2018**, 65, 1290–1297. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Ardi, H.; Ajami, A. Study on a High Voltage Gain SEPIC-Based DC–DC Converter with Continuous Input Current for Sustainable Energy Applications. IEEE Trans. Power Electron.
**2018**, 33, 10403–10409. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Ioannidis, G.C.; Manias, S.N. Robust Current Assisted H∞ Controller for Boost Converter in the Presence of Uncertainty and Evaluation Using μ-Analysis. In Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Rhodes, Greece, 15–19 June 2008; pp. 3272–3278. [Google Scholar]
- Marambeas, P.G.; Papathanassiou, S.; Manias, S.N.; Mouroutsos, S.; Ioannidis, G. A Power Electronics Conversion Topology for Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems. In Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Rhodes, Greece, 15–19 June 2008; pp. 216–222. [Google Scholar]

**Figure 2.**Different time intervals of the presented structure. (

**a**) Operation mode I, (

**b**) Operation mode II, (

**c**) Operation mode III, (

**d**) Operation mode VI, (

**e**) Operation mode V.

**Figure 9.**The experimental results: (

**a**) capacitor voltages, (

**b**) voltage stresses of main switch and diode D1, (

**c**) voltage stress of D3, (

**d**) current stresses of main switch and diode D1, (

**e**) inductor currents, (

**f**) current of diode D2.

Structures | Number of Components | Voltage Gain * | Voltage Stress on the Main Switch | Continuous Input Current | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Switches | Diodes | Capacitors | Inductors | ||||

Converter in [18] | 1 | 2 | 3 | 2 | $\frac{n+1}{1-D}$ | $\frac{{M}_{\mathrm{CCM}}}{n+1}$ | YES |

Converter in [19] | 1 | 4 | 4 | 1 | $\frac{2+n+nD}{1-D}$ | $\frac{{M}_{\mathrm{CCM}}+n}{2n+2}$ | NO |

Converter in [20] | 1 | 4 | 4 | 1 | $\frac{1+n(1+D)}{1-D}$ | $\frac{{M}_{\mathrm{CCM}}+n}{2n+1}$ | NO |

Converter in [21] | 1 | 4 | 4 | 1 | $\frac{{N}_{2}}{{N}_{1}}+\frac{2\u2012D+\frac{{N}_{3}}{{N}_{1}}}{1-D}$ | $\frac{{M}_{\mathrm{CCM}}-1-n}{1+n}$ | NO |

Converter in [22] | 1 | 5 | 5 | 1 | $\frac{{N}_{2}}{{N}_{1}}+\frac{1+(\frac{{N}_{2}}{{N}_{1}}+\frac{{N}_{3}}{{N}_{1}})D}{1-D}$ | $\frac{{M}_{\mathrm{CCM}}+n}{2n-1}$ | NO |

Converter in [25] | 1 | 2 | 2 | 1 | $\frac{1}{1-\frac{{N}_{1}+{N}_{3}}{{N}_{3}-{N}_{2}}D}$ | ${M}_{\mathrm{CCM}}$ | NO |

Converter in [26] | 2 | 3 | 3 | 2 | $\frac{1}{1-\frac{{N}_{1}+{N}_{3}}{{N}_{3}-{N}_{2}}(2D-1)}$ | $\frac{{M}_{\mathrm{CCM}}}{2{N}_{PP}}$ | NO |

Converter in [28] | 1 | 4 | 4 | 2 | $\frac{2+n+D}{1-D}$ | $\frac{1+{M}_{\mathrm{CCM}}}{3+n}$ | YES |

Converter in [29] | 1 | 4 | 4 | 2 | $\frac{2+n+D(1+n)}{1-D}$ | $\frac{n+1+{M}_{\mathrm{CCM}}}{3+n}$ | YES |

Proposed Converter | 1 | 3 | 4 | 2 | $\frac{(1+\frac{{N}_{1}+{N}_{3}}{{N}_{1}-{N}_{2}})}{1-D}$ | $\frac{{M}_{\mathrm{CCM}}}{1+\frac{{N}_{1}+{N}_{3}}{{N}_{1}-{N}_{2}}}$ | YES |

_{2}/n

_{1}). For three-winding coupled inductors, N

_{1}, N

_{2}, and N

_{3}show the turns of the primary, secondary, and tertiary side of the coupled inductor.

Specifications | Values |
---|---|

Input Voltage | 25 V |

Output Voltage | 400 V |

Capacitors | C_{1-3} = 100 µF, C_{O} = 220 µF |

Inductor (L) | 300 uH |

Coupled-inductor | Core: ETD 59, Gap: 0.1 mm, N_{1}, N_{2}, N_{3}: 13, 5, 26 turns L_{k} = 2 uH, L_{m} = 100 uH |

Switching frequency | 33 kHz |

Power Switches | IRFP260 |

Diodes | MUR1560 |

© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Farakhor, A.; Abapour, M.; Sabahi, M.; Gholami Farkoush, S.; Oh, S.-R.; Rhee, S.-B.
A Study on an Improved Three-Winding Coupled Inductor Based DC/DC Boost Converter with Continuous Input Current. *Energies* **2020**, *13*, 1780.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071780

**AMA Style**

Farakhor A, Abapour M, Sabahi M, Gholami Farkoush S, Oh S-R, Rhee S-B.
A Study on an Improved Three-Winding Coupled Inductor Based DC/DC Boost Converter with Continuous Input Current. *Energies*. 2020; 13(7):1780.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071780

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Farakhor, Amir, Mehdi Abapour, Mehran Sabahi, Saeid Gholami Farkoush, Seung-Ryle Oh, and Sang-Bong Rhee.
2020. "A Study on an Improved Three-Winding Coupled Inductor Based DC/DC Boost Converter with Continuous Input Current" *Energies* 13, no. 7: 1780.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071780