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Open AccessArticle

Comparing Power-System and User-Oriented Battery Electric Vehicle Charging Representation and Its Implications on Energy System Modeling

1
Department of Energy Systems Analysis, Institute of Engineering Thermodynamics, German Aerospace Center, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
2
Department of Passenger Transport, Institute of Transport Research, German Aerospace Center, Rudower Chaussee 7, 12489 Berlin, Germany
3
Department of Vehicle Systems and Technology Assessment, Institute of Vehicle Concepts, German Aerospace Center, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1093; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051093
Received: 18 January 2020 / Revised: 25 February 2020 / Accepted: 26 February 2020 / Published: 2 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Model Coupling and Energy Systems)
Battery electric vehicles (BEV) provide an opportunity to balance supply and demand in future power systems with high shares of fluctuating renewable energy. Compared to other storage systems such as pumped-storage hydroelectricity, electric vehicle energy demand is highly dependent on charging and connection choices of vehicle users. We present a model framework of a utility-based stock and flow model, a utility-based microsimulation of charging decisions, and an energy system model including respective interfaces to assess how the representation of battery electric vehicle charging affects energy system optimization results. We then apply the framework to a scenario study for controlled charging of nine million electric vehicles in Germany in 2030. Assuming a respective fleet power demand of 27 TWh, we analyze the difference between power-system-based and vehicle user-based charging decisions in two respective scenarios. Our results show that taking into account vehicle users’ charging and connection decisions significantly decreases the load shifting potential of controlled charging. The analysis of marginal values of equations and variables of the optimization problem yields valuable insights on the importance of specific constraints and optimization variables. Assumptions on fleet battery availability and a detailed representation of fast charging are found to have a strong impact on wind curtailment, renewable energy feed-in, and required gas power plant flexibility. A representation of fleet connection to the grid in high temporal detail is less important. Peak load can be reduced by 5% and 3% in both scenarios, respectively. Shifted load is robust across sensitivity analyses while other model results such as curtailment are more sensitive to factors such as underlying data years. Analyzing the importance of increased BEV fleet battery availability for power systems with different weather and electricity demand characteristics should be further scrutinized. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicles; sector coupling; energy system optimization; renewable energy integration; REMix; charging behavior; marginal values electric vehicles; sector coupling; energy system optimization; renewable energy integration; REMix; charging behavior; marginal values
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  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3686263
    Link: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3686263
    Description: This supplementary material includes data, code and a transparency checklist for the research described in the paper "Comparing power-system- and user-oriented battery electric vehicle charging representation and its implications on energy system modeling". The code contains an interface between the output files of the micro-simulation model CURRENT and the energy system optimization model REMix as well as some scripts for analyzing REMix results. The data folder contains input data for REMix, the complete list of all model runs analyzed in the paper in the GAMS format .gdx as well as Excel files containing annual results of the sensitivity runs and respective pivot tables and figures for respective analysis.
MDPI and ACS Style

Wulff, N.; Steck, F.; Gils, H.C.; Hoyer-Klick, C.; van den Adel, B.; Anderson, J.E. Comparing Power-System and User-Oriented Battery Electric Vehicle Charging Representation and Its Implications on Energy System Modeling. Energies 2020, 13, 1093. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051093

AMA Style

Wulff N, Steck F, Gils HC, Hoyer-Klick C, van den Adel B, Anderson JE. Comparing Power-System and User-Oriented Battery Electric Vehicle Charging Representation and Its Implications on Energy System Modeling. Energies. 2020; 13(5):1093. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051093

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wulff, Niklas; Steck, Felix; Gils, Hans C.; Hoyer-Klick, Carsten; van den Adel, Bent; Anderson, John E. 2020. "Comparing Power-System and User-Oriented Battery Electric Vehicle Charging Representation and Its Implications on Energy System Modeling" Energies 13, no. 5: 1093. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051093

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