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Article

Estimating the Optimum Tilt Angles for South-Facing Surfaces in Palestine

1
Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering & Information Technology, An-Najah National University, P.O. Box 7, 00970 Nablus, Palestine
2
Department of Engineering, CEIA3, University of Almeria, 04120 Almeria, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(3), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030623
Received: 7 December 2019 / Revised: 23 January 2020 / Accepted: 27 January 2020 / Published: 1 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Saving at Cities)
The optimum tilt angle of solar panels or collectors is crucial when determining parameters that affect the performance of those panels. A mathematical model is used for determining the optimum tilt angle and for calculating the solar radiation on a south-facing surface on a daily, monthly, seasonal, semi-annual, and annual basis. Photovoltaic Geographical Information System (PVGIS) and Photovoltaic Software (PVWatts) is developed by the NREL (US National Renewable Energy Laboratory) are also used to calculate the optimum monthly, seasonal, semi-annual, and annual tilt angles and to compare these results with the results obtained from the mathematical model. The results are very similar. PVGIS and PVWatts are used to estimate the solar radiation on south-facing surfaces with different tilt angles. A case study of a mono-crystalline module with 5 kWP of peak power is used to find out the amount of increased energy (gains) obtained by adjusting the Photovoltaic (PV) tilt angles based on yearly, semi-annual, seasonal, and monthly tilt angles. The results show that monthly adjustments of the solar panels in the main Palestinian cities can generate about 17% more solar energy than the case of solar panels fixed on a horizontal surface. Seasonal and semi-annual adjustments can generate about 15% more energy (i.e., it is worth changing the solar panels 12 times a year (monthly) or at least 2 times a year (semi-annually). The yearly optimum tilt angle for most Palestinian cities is about 29°, which yields an increase of about 10% energy gain compared to a solar panel fixed on a horizontal surface. View Full-Text
Keywords: optimal tilt angle; PV system; solar photovoltaic; solar radiation; PVGIS; PVWatts; Palestine optimal tilt angle; PV system; solar photovoltaic; solar radiation; PVGIS; PVWatts; Palestine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abdallah, R.; Juaidi, A.; Abdel-Fattah, S.; Manzano-Agugliaro, F. Estimating the Optimum Tilt Angles for South-Facing Surfaces in Palestine. Energies 2020, 13, 623. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030623

AMA Style

Abdallah R, Juaidi A, Abdel-Fattah S, Manzano-Agugliaro F. Estimating the Optimum Tilt Angles for South-Facing Surfaces in Palestine. Energies. 2020; 13(3):623. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030623

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abdallah, Ramez, Adel Juaidi, Salameh Abdel-Fattah, and Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro. 2020. "Estimating the Optimum Tilt Angles for South-Facing Surfaces in Palestine" Energies 13, no. 3: 623. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030623

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