Impact of Users’ Behavior and Real Weather Conditions on the Energy Consumption of Tenement Houses in Wroclaw, Poland: Energy Performance Gap Simulation Based on a Model Calibrated by Field Measurements
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Aim of the Research
2.2. Subject of Study
2.4. Computational Models
- Simulation 0: The results show the actual final energy consumption for space heating and DHW preparation during the research period (14 January to 9 March 2020). The results of this simulation correspond to the apartment use conditions (see Table 3) and weather conditions observed during the tests.
- Simulation 1: The results show the final energy consumption for space heating and DHW preparation in the research period for the weather conditions observed during the tests, but for the proper use of the apartment. The proper use is defined by interior temperature, ventilation level and DHW consumption as described below the interior temperature in the apartments was changed to comply with the requirements of Polish regulations , i.e., 20 °C in residential rooms and 24 °C in bathrooms. The ventilation level was assumed to meet the hygienic minimum , which should allow the CO2 concentration to be maintained at the appropriate level. DHW consumption was assumed at the level of 40 L/day per person (which corresponds to the average DHW consumption in all analyzed premises).
- Simulation 2: The results show the final energy consumption for space heating and DHW preparation in the research period for proper use of the apartment, as described in simulation 1, but for weather conditions corresponding to the data used in engineering calculations .
- Simulation 3: The results show the final energy consumption for space heating and DHW preparation in the research period for the weather conditions corresponding to the data used in engineering calculations  and for the use of the premises described as standard in engineering calculations of energy demand .
- Simulation 4: The results show the final energy consumption for space heating and DHW preparation in the research period for the weather conditions observed during the tests and for the use of the premises described as standard in engineering calculations of energy demand .
2.6. Methods of Energy Performance Gap Calculation
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Final Energy Use: Measurement vs. Calculation
3.2. Energy Performance Gap
Conflicts of Interest
|DHW||Domestic hot water|
|Average heat transfer coefficient, W/m2K|
|Domestic hot water consumption,|
|Domestic hot water temperature,|
|Energy performance gap for space heating|
|Energy performance gap for domestic hot water preparation|
|Energy performance gap for space heating and domestic hot water production|
|Final energy for space heating,|
|Final energy for domestic hot water preparation,|
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|Apartment Number||Flat Area (m2)||Heating Source||DHW Production Source||Location/Orientation of the Window||Technical Condition of Building/Uavg Value [W/m2K]||Tenants|
|A1||44.4||SF + EE||EE||middle floor; corner/NW||very bad/0.98||couple|
|A2||41.5||SF||EE||middle floor; corner/SW||very bad/1.02||retired lady|
|A3||40.7||SF||EE||attic; corner/SE||bad/0.97||retired lady|
|A4||47.4||SF||EE||middle floor; one-sided/SW||very bad/0.99||mother and daughter|
|A5||34.5||EE||EE||middle floor; corner/SW||very bad/0.93||elderly couple|
|A6||54.5||EE||EE||attic; corner/NE||very bad/0.88||mother and son|
|A7||62.9||EE||EE||attic; one-sided/NE||bad/1.00||single woman|
|A8||44.1||DH||DH||ground floor; one-sided/SW||average/0.85||couple|
|A9||76.1||DH||DH||middle floor; two-sided/SE||good/1.20||couple + single|
|A10||59.8||DH + EE||DH||ground floor; corner/NE, E, SE||good/0.68||family (4)|
|A11||85.5||DH||DH||mid. floor; two-sided/SW, NE||average/1.08||family (3)|
|A12||52.5||NG||NG||mid. floor; two-sided/SW, NE||good/0.75||young couple|
|A13||85.0||NG||NG||mid. floor; two-sided/SW, NE||average/1.03||multigenerational family|
|A14||55.9||NG||NG||middle floor; corner/SW||good/0.74||family (4)|
|A15||128.5||NG||NG||mid. floor; two-sided/SE, NW||good/0.67||multigenerational family|
|Measuring Device||Producer||Type||Measuring Accuracy|
|Energy data logger||Voltcraft||4000||1%|
|Gas volume meter||Plum||MacR6||according to meter type 1 impulse = 0.01 m3|
|Two-channel temperature recorder||Testo||175-T3||±0.5 °C (−50 to +70 °C)|
|Clamp-on water temperature probe||Testo||K-type||class 1|
|One-channel temperature recorder||Testo||176-T1||±0.3 °C (−100 to +70 °C)|
|Two-channel temperature and humidity recorder||Testo||174H||±0.5 °C (–20 to +70 °C); ±3% RH (2 to 98% RH) at +25 °C ±0.03% RH/K|
|Two-channel temperature recorder|
with surface temperature probes
|±0.5% (–35 to +55 °C);|
ext. sens.: ±0.2 °C (−25 to +80 °C)
|Hook scale||Steinberg||–||2–300 kg; class 3|
|Temperature, humidity, and CO2 recorder||Comet System||Test-Therm||±1.8% RH; ±1.5 °C; ± (50 ppm + 2% measured value) for 25 °C and 1013 hPa|
|Humidity and temperature probes||Vaisala||HMP45||±0.2 °C (at +20 °C)|
|Pyranometer||Kipp and Zonen||CMP3||<5% (–10 to +40 °C)|
|VDHW, L/d pp||60.7||41.1||48.4||83.0||0.5||60.7||0.0||14.6||8.3||26.8||50.6||53.6||24.6||39.2||51.8|
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Szulgowska-Zgrzywa, M.; Stefanowicz, E.; Piechurski, K.; Chmielewska, A.; Kowalczyk, M. Impact of Users’ Behavior and Real Weather Conditions on the Energy Consumption of Tenement Houses in Wroclaw, Poland: Energy Performance Gap Simulation Based on a Model Calibrated by Field Measurements. Energies 2020, 13, 6707. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246707
Szulgowska-Zgrzywa M, Stefanowicz E, Piechurski K, Chmielewska A, Kowalczyk M. Impact of Users’ Behavior and Real Weather Conditions on the Energy Consumption of Tenement Houses in Wroclaw, Poland: Energy Performance Gap Simulation Based on a Model Calibrated by Field Measurements. Energies. 2020; 13(24):6707. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246707Chicago/Turabian Style
Szulgowska-Zgrzywa, Małgorzata, Ewelina Stefanowicz, Krzysztof Piechurski, Agnieszka Chmielewska, and Marek Kowalczyk. 2020. "Impact of Users’ Behavior and Real Weather Conditions on the Energy Consumption of Tenement Houses in Wroclaw, Poland: Energy Performance Gap Simulation Based on a Model Calibrated by Field Measurements" Energies 13, no. 24: 6707. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246707