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Open AccessArticle

Impact of Users’ Behavior and Real Weather Conditions on the Energy Consumption of Tenement Houses in Wroclaw, Poland: Energy Performance Gap Simulation Based on a Model Calibrated by Field Measurements

1
Department of Air-Conditioning, Heating, Gas Engineering and Air Protection, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Norwida St. 4/6, 50-373 Wroclaw, Poland
2
Department of Climatology and Atmosphere Protection, University of Wroclaw, Kosiby St. 8, 51-621 Wroclaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(24), 6707; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246707
Received: 6 November 2020 / Revised: 9 December 2020 / Accepted: 14 December 2020 / Published: 18 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Processes, Systems and Equipment)
This paper presents the results of measuring the final energy consumption for heating and domestic hot water (DHW) preparation and indoor conditions in 15 apartments located in pre-war tenement houses. The measurements were compared to the computed energy consumption. The calculations ware made based on the model calibrated by field measurements. The discrepancies between measurements and calculations were assessed using the energy performance gap (EPG). Calculations were made separately for energy for heating and for DHW preparation. Additionally, the results of EPG calculations for different levels of analysis are presented aiming at assessing the impact of weather, temperature in the surrounding zones and users’ behavior. Users’ behaviors influencing the size of the EPG were divided into typical (energy saving or excessive energy consumption) and forced (energy poverty, response to the apartment’s surroundings, technical limitations. The connection between the heating sources and the heating habits has been clearly observed in the research. The former (typical) behaviors were the origin of the energy gap in the apartments heated with natural gas and district heating. The latter (forced) were the origin of the gap in the apartments heated with mostly electricity and solid fuel (with one exception: one apartment that utilized the district heating). View Full-Text
Keywords: energy performance gap; user behavior; energy poverty; pre-war tenement building energy performance gap; user behavior; energy poverty; pre-war tenement building
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MDPI and ACS Style

Szulgowska-Zgrzywa, M.; Stefanowicz, E.; Piechurski, K.; Chmielewska, A.; Kowalczyk, M. Impact of Users’ Behavior and Real Weather Conditions on the Energy Consumption of Tenement Houses in Wroclaw, Poland: Energy Performance Gap Simulation Based on a Model Calibrated by Field Measurements. Energies 2020, 13, 6707. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246707

AMA Style

Szulgowska-Zgrzywa M, Stefanowicz E, Piechurski K, Chmielewska A, Kowalczyk M. Impact of Users’ Behavior and Real Weather Conditions on the Energy Consumption of Tenement Houses in Wroclaw, Poland: Energy Performance Gap Simulation Based on a Model Calibrated by Field Measurements. Energies. 2020; 13(24):6707. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246707

Chicago/Turabian Style

Szulgowska-Zgrzywa, Małgorzata; Stefanowicz, Ewelina; Piechurski, Krzysztof; Chmielewska, Agnieszka; Kowalczyk, Marek. 2020. "Impact of Users’ Behavior and Real Weather Conditions on the Energy Consumption of Tenement Houses in Wroclaw, Poland: Energy Performance Gap Simulation Based on a Model Calibrated by Field Measurements" Energies 13, no. 24: 6707. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246707

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