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Open AccessArticle

Considerations on Potentials, Greenhouse Gas, and Energy Performance of Biofuels Based on Forest Residues for Heavy-Duty Road Transport in Sweden

1
Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Kungsbäcksvägen 47, 80176 Gävle, Sweden
2
Environmental and Energy Systems, Lund University, 22100 Lund, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(24), 6701; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246701
Received: 19 October 2020 / Revised: 11 December 2020 / Accepted: 14 December 2020 / Published: 18 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue European Biofuel Production, Conversion and Economics)
This case study investigates the potentials, greenhouse gas (GHG), and energy performance of forest residue biofuels produced by new and emerging production technologies, which are commercially implemented in Sweden for heavy transport. The biofuel options included are ethanol (ED 95), hydro-processed vegetable oil (HVO), and liquefied biogas (LBG) produced from logging residues in forestry and sawdust generated in sawmills. The calculated life cycle GHG emissions, based on the EU Renewable Energy Directive calculation methodology, for all three pathways are in the range of 6–11 g CO2eq./MJ, corresponding to 88–94% GHG emission reductions as compared to fossil fuel. Critical parameters are the enzyme configuration for ethanol, hydrogen supply systems and bio-oil technology for HVO, and gasifier size for LBG. The energy input is ranging from 0.16 to 0.43 MJ/MJ biofuel and the total conversion efficiency from the feedstock to biofuel, including high-value by-products (excluding heat), varies between 61 and 65%. The study concludes that the domestic biofuel potential from estimated accessible logging residues and sawdust is equivalent to 50–100% of the current use of fossil diesel in heavy-duty road transport in Sweden, depending on the biofuel production technology selected and excluding energy by-products. Thus, an expansion of forest-based biofuels is a promising strategy to meet the ambitious climate goals in the transport sector in Sweden. View Full-Text
Keywords: logging residues; sawdust; ethanol; HVO; LBG; GHG emissions; energy efficiency; biofuel potential logging residues; sawdust; ethanol; HVO; LBG; GHG emissions; energy efficiency; biofuel potential
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MDPI and ACS Style

Soam, S.; Börjesson, P. Considerations on Potentials, Greenhouse Gas, and Energy Performance of Biofuels Based on Forest Residues for Heavy-Duty Road Transport in Sweden. Energies 2020, 13, 6701. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246701

AMA Style

Soam S, Börjesson P. Considerations on Potentials, Greenhouse Gas, and Energy Performance of Biofuels Based on Forest Residues for Heavy-Duty Road Transport in Sweden. Energies. 2020; 13(24):6701. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246701

Chicago/Turabian Style

Soam, Shveta; Börjesson, Pål. 2020. "Considerations on Potentials, Greenhouse Gas, and Energy Performance of Biofuels Based on Forest Residues for Heavy-Duty Road Transport in Sweden" Energies 13, no. 24: 6701. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246701

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