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Article

Chemical Impacts of Potential CO2 and Brine Leakage on Groundwater Quality with Quantitative Risk Assessment: A Case Study of the Farnsworth Unit

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
2
Energy and Geoscience Institute, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA
3
College of Construction Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130026, China
4
Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
5
Utah Division of Water Resources, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(24), 6574; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246574
Received: 23 October 2020 / Revised: 5 December 2020 / Accepted: 9 December 2020 / Published: 14 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forecasting CO2 Sequestration with Enhanced Oil Recovery)
Potential leakage of reservoir fluids is considered a key risk factor for geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS), with concerns of their chemical impacts on the quality of overlying underground sources of drinking water (USDWs). Effective risk assessment provides useful information to guide GCS activities for protecting USDWs. In this study, we present a quantified risk assessment case study of an active commercial-scale CO2-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) and sequestration field, the Farnsworth Unit (FWU). Specific objectives of this study include: (1) to quantify potential risks of CO2 and brine leakage to the overlying USDW quality with response surface methodology (RSM); and (2) to identify water chemistry indicators for early detection criteria. Results suggest that trace metals (e.g., arsenic and selenium) are less likely to become a risk due to their adsorption onto clay minerals; no-impact thresholds based on site monitoring data could be a preferable reference for early groundwater quality evaluation; and pH is suggested as an indicator for early detection of a leakage. This study may provide quantitative insight for monitoring strategies on GCS sites to enhance the safety of long-term CO2 sequestration. View Full-Text
Keywords: geologic CO2 sequestration; CO2 and brine leakage; underground source of drinking water; risk assessment; response surface methodology; early detection criteria geologic CO2 sequestration; CO2 and brine leakage; underground source of drinking water; risk assessment; response surface methodology; early detection criteria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xiao, T.; McPherson, B.; Esser, R.; Jia, W.; Dai, Z.; Chu, S.; Pan, F.; Viswanathan, H. Chemical Impacts of Potential CO2 and Brine Leakage on Groundwater Quality with Quantitative Risk Assessment: A Case Study of the Farnsworth Unit. Energies 2020, 13, 6574. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246574

AMA Style

Xiao T, McPherson B, Esser R, Jia W, Dai Z, Chu S, Pan F, Viswanathan H. Chemical Impacts of Potential CO2 and Brine Leakage on Groundwater Quality with Quantitative Risk Assessment: A Case Study of the Farnsworth Unit. Energies. 2020; 13(24):6574. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246574

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xiao, Ting, Brian McPherson, Richard Esser, Wei Jia, Zhenxue Dai, Shaoping Chu, Feng Pan, and Hari Viswanathan. 2020. "Chemical Impacts of Potential CO2 and Brine Leakage on Groundwater Quality with Quantitative Risk Assessment: A Case Study of the Farnsworth Unit" Energies 13, no. 24: 6574. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246574

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