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Article

Environmental Impacts of Charging Concepts for Battery Electric Vehicles: A Comparison of On-Board and Off-Board Charging Systems Based on a Life Cycle Assessment

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Chair of Technology and Innovation Management, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany
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Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN), RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, Germany
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Institute for Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS), RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, Germany
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Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research–Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation (IEK-STE), 52425 Jülich, Germany
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JARA-ENERGY, 52425 Jülich, Germany
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JARA-ENERGY, 52074 Aachen, Germany
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(24), 6508; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246508
Received: 31 August 2020 / Revised: 30 November 2020 / Accepted: 2 December 2020 / Published: 9 December 2020
We investigate the environmental impacts of on-board (based on alternating current, AC) and off-board (based on direct current, DC) charging concepts for electric vehicles using Life Cycle Assessment and considering a maximum charging power of 22 kW (AC) and 50 kW (DC). Our results show that the manufacturing of chargers provokes the highest contribution to environmental impacts of the production phase. Within the chargers, the filters could be identified as main polluters for all power levels. When comparing the results on a system level, the DC system causes less environmental impact than the AC system in all impact categories. In our diffusion scenarios for electric vehicles, annual emission reductions of up to 35 million kg CO2-eq. could be achieved when the DC system is used instead of the AC system. In addition to the environmental assessment, we examine economic effects. Here, we find annual savings of up to 8.5 million euros, when the DC system is used instead of the AC system. View Full-Text
Keywords: charging infrastructure; electric vehicle; life cycle assessment; AC charging; DC charging; economic assessment charging infrastructure; electric vehicle; life cycle assessment; AC charging; DC charging; economic assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kabus, M.; Nolting, L.; Mortimer, B.J.; Koj, J.C.; Kuckshinrichs, W.; De Doncker, R.W.; Praktiknjo, A. Environmental Impacts of Charging Concepts for Battery Electric Vehicles: A Comparison of On-Board and Off-Board Charging Systems Based on a Life Cycle Assessment. Energies 2020, 13, 6508. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246508

AMA Style

Kabus M, Nolting L, Mortimer BJ, Koj JC, Kuckshinrichs W, De Doncker RW, Praktiknjo A. Environmental Impacts of Charging Concepts for Battery Electric Vehicles: A Comparison of On-Board and Off-Board Charging Systems Based on a Life Cycle Assessment. Energies. 2020; 13(24):6508. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246508

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kabus, Mona, Lars Nolting, Benedict J. Mortimer, Jan C. Koj, Wilhelm Kuckshinrichs, Rik W. De Doncker, and Aaron Praktiknjo. 2020. "Environmental Impacts of Charging Concepts for Battery Electric Vehicles: A Comparison of On-Board and Off-Board Charging Systems Based on a Life Cycle Assessment" Energies 13, no. 24: 6508. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246508

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