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Article

Reactive Power Optimization and Price Management in Microgrid Enabled with Blockchain

1
Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, GMR Institute of Technology, Rajam 532127, Andhra Pradesh, India
2
Faculty of Computer Science Engineering, Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Engineering College, Perambalur 621212, Tamil Nadu, India
3
Faculty of English, Kalasalingam Academy of Research and Education, Anand Nagar, Krishnankoil 626126, Tamil Nadu, India
4
The Management Faculty, Czestochowa University of Technology, Armii Krajowej 19B, 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland
5
Faculty of Management, Rzeszów University of Technology, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(23), 6179; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236179
Received: 27 October 2020 / Revised: 16 November 2020 / Accepted: 17 November 2020 / Published: 24 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Financial Development and Energy Consumption Nexus)
The energy market is gradually changing from centralized trading to peer-to-peer trading due to the tremendous increase in a microgrid with green energy resources. When more generating units are included in the microgrid, the possibilities of more reactive power flows exist in the system that leads to high transmission loss which has to be optimized. The reactive power is one of the essential ancillary services in the microgrid towards preserving the voltage in the transmission and distribution line. The major contribution of the paper is towards managing the ancillary service in the distributed energy network economically and technically. This study aims to estimate and optimize the power loss, reactive power, and price management as well. Towards optimization, the self-balanced differential evolution algorithm (SBDE) is used in this study. A distribution system operator is involved in coordinating the sellers and buyers. The proposed layered microgrid architecture uses the blockchain technology for reactive power price management by providing transparency and security among peers. The process of converging various transactions into a block and adding in the distributed blockchain is illustrated. Multiple transactions are performed by using the proposed methodology, giving efficient energy transaction. The results show that the power loss is minimized using SBDE algorithm for different cases. Additionally, the study has demonstrated the price allocation of the optimal reactive power obtained from providers. The blockchain technology embedded in reactive power pricing will play a significant role in the evolution of traditional power distribution systems to active distribution networks. View Full-Text
Keywords: reactive power; optimization; microgrid; blockchain; power loss; differential evolution reactive power; optimization; microgrid; blockchain; power loss; differential evolution
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MDPI and ACS Style

D., D.; R., G.; Hariharasudan, A.; Otola, I.; Bilan, Y. Reactive Power Optimization and Price Management in Microgrid Enabled with Blockchain. Energies 2020, 13, 6179. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236179

AMA Style

D. D, R. G, Hariharasudan A, Otola I, Bilan Y. Reactive Power Optimization and Price Management in Microgrid Enabled with Blockchain. Energies. 2020; 13(23):6179. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236179

Chicago/Turabian Style

D., Danalakshmi, Gopi R., A. Hariharasudan, Iwona Otola, and Yuriy Bilan. 2020. "Reactive Power Optimization and Price Management in Microgrid Enabled with Blockchain" Energies 13, no. 23: 6179. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236179

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