Real-Time Minimization Power Losses by Driven Primary Regulation in Islanded Microgrids
- The primary control is usually designed to use a droop-control method to stabilize voltage and frequency and regulate the power sharing between distributed generators in microgrids. This control level is also used to mitigate the circulating currents between paralleled three-phase generators’ converters that cause over-current phenomenon in the power electric devices and damage the capacitors in milliseconds.
- The secondary control is designed to compensate for the voltage and frequency deviation caused by the primary control. This control level has a slower dynamics response than the primary control level and is explicated in the range of seconds. In this way, the secondary control level can also be implemented to satisfy the power quality requirements.
- The tertiary control is the last and slower control level. It manages the power flows inside the MG and between the MG and the main grid providing the distributed energy resources the operating set-points. The tertiary control level also provides optimal operation setting by solving optimization problems for minimizing power losses and operating costs.
- A structure of an online driven droop regulation system is presented to decrease operating energy losses. The designed controller relies on the real-time measurements and online power flow optimization within microgrids by adjusting the droop coefficients of inverter interfaced units.
- Improving the real-time dynamic response of distributed energy resources and maintaining real-time stability for the microgrid. Indeed, the volumes of secondary and tertiary control taken over from primary control are relieved, thus getting a more reliable operation for microgrids.
- In the application part of the work, experimental validation scenarios for a laboratory platform with optimization controllers and power-hardware-in-the-loop setups have been implemented to test the online operating characteristics of the system. During the experiments, the P-f droop coefficients have changed to adapt to load changing conditions. It is proved that the proposed architecture under realistic conditions achieves improved operation.
2. Optimization Program
3. Structure of the Online Driven Droop Regulation for Minimum Power Losses Operation
4. Simulations and Results
4.1. Simulation in an Optimization Program
4.2. Hardware in the Loop Simulation
- Scenario 1: Test system is operated with the conventional droop control method;
- Scenario 2: Test system is operated with the proposed optimized droop control method to see how the system operates when KG2 is selected optimally in the range (9–11.25);
- Scenario 3: Test system is operated with the proposed optimized control method to see how the system operates when KG2 is selected optimally in a wider range (6.75–11.25).
5. Experimental Results and Analysis
5.1. The Simulation Results of the Transient Responses
5.2. The Simulation Results in 24 H
Conflicts of Interest
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|Number of channels: 256 input/output configurable in 1- to 32-bit groups |
Compatibility: 3.3 V
Power-on state: High impedance
|Device: Xilinx Spartan 3|
I/O Package: fg676
Embedded RAM available: 216 Kbytes
Clock: 100 MHz
Platform options: XC3S5000
Logic slices: 33,280
Equivalent logic cells: 74,880
Available I/O lines: 489
|Dimensions (not including connectors): PCI-Express x1|
Data transfer: 2.5 Gbit/s
|From||To||R (Ohm/km)||X (Ohm/km)||L (km)|
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Tran, Q.T.T.; Riva Sanseverino, E.; Zizzo, G.; Di Silvestre, M.L.; Nguyen, T.L.; Tran, Q.-T. Real-Time Minimization Power Losses by Driven Primary Regulation in Islanded Microgrids. Energies 2020, 13, 451. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13020451
Tran QTT, Riva Sanseverino E, Zizzo G, Di Silvestre ML, Nguyen TL, Tran Q-T. Real-Time Minimization Power Losses by Driven Primary Regulation in Islanded Microgrids. Energies. 2020; 13(2):451. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13020451Chicago/Turabian Style
Tran, Quynh T.T, Eleonora Riva Sanseverino, Gaetano Zizzo, Maria Luisa Di Silvestre, Tung Lam Nguyen, and Quoc-Tuan Tran. 2020. "Real-Time Minimization Power Losses by Driven Primary Regulation in Islanded Microgrids" Energies 13, no. 2: 451. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13020451