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Open AccessArticle

A Partially Amended Hybrid Bi-GRU—ARIMA Model (PAHM) for Predicting Solar Irradiance in Short and Very-Short Terms

Department of Bio-Systems Engineering, Gyeongsang National University (Institute of Agriculture & Life Science), Jinju 52828, Korea
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Energies 2020, 13(2), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13020435
Received: 27 November 2019 / Revised: 3 January 2020 / Accepted: 10 January 2020 / Published: 16 January 2020
Solar renewable energy (SRE) applications are substantial in eradicating the rising global energy shortages and reversing the approaching environmental apocalypse. Hence, effective solar irradiance forecasting models are crucial in utilizing SRE efficiently. This paper introduces a partially amended hybrid model (PAHM) by the implementation of a new algorithm. The algorithm innovatively utilizes bi-directional gated unit (Bi-GRU), autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and naive decomposition models to predict solar irradiance in 5-min and 60-min intervals. Meanwhile, the models’ generalizability strengths would be tested under an 11-fold cross-validation and are further classified according to their computational costs. The dataset consists of 32 months’ solar irradiance and weather conditions records. A fundamental result of this study was that the single models (Bi-GRU and ARIMA) outperformed the hybrid models (PAHM, classical hybrid model) in the 5-min predictions, negating the assumptions that hybrid models oust single models in every time interval. PAHM provided the highest accuracy level in the 60-min predictions and improved the accuracy levels of the classical hybrid model by 5%, on average. The single models were rigorous under the 11-fold cross-validation, performing well with different datasets; although the computational efficiency of the Bi-GRU model was, by far, the best among the models. View Full-Text
Keywords: solar irradiance; bi-GRU; ARIMA; algorithm; naive decomposition; short and very short terms; computational efficiency solar irradiance; bi-GRU; ARIMA; algorithm; naive decomposition; short and very short terms; computational efficiency
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Jaihuni, M.; Basak, J.K.; Khan, F.; Okyere, F.G.; Arulmozhi, E.; Bhujel, A.; Park, J.; Hyun, L.D.; Kim, H.T. A Partially Amended Hybrid Bi-GRU—ARIMA Model (PAHM) for Predicting Solar Irradiance in Short and Very-Short Terms. Energies 2020, 13, 435.

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